• Peter Fischer
  • Kathrin Asal
  • Joachim I. Krueger
Part of the Springer-Lehrbuch book series (SLB)


Mord und Totschlag gibt es nicht erst in der heutigen Zeit: Bereits in der Bibel, und somit schon zu Beginn der menschlichen Geschichtsschreibung, wird von Gewalttaten berichtet: So erschlug beispielsweise Kain, der Sohn Adams und Evas, seinen Bruder Abel (Genesis 4,1–24).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Weiterführende Literatur

  1. Baron, R. A. & Richardson, D. R. (2004). Human aggression (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Aquino, K. & Thau, S. (2009). Workplace victimization: Aggression from the target’s perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 717–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Greitemeyer, T. & McLatchie, N. (2011). Denying humanness to others: A newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior. Psychological Science, 22, 659–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar


  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Vol. 2, (pp. 267–299). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amaral, D. G. (2003). The amygdala, social behaviour, and danger detection. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1000, 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. A., Anderson, K. B. & Deuser, W. E. (1996). Examining an affective aggression framework: Weapon and temperature effects on aggressive thoughts, affect and attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 366–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. A., Benjamin Jr., A. J. & Bartholow, B. D. (1998). Does the gun pull the trigger? Automatic priming effects of weapon pictures and weapon names. Psychological Science, 9, 308–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive effect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2002a). The effects of media violence on society. Science, 295, 2377–2379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, C. A. & Bushman, B. J. (2002b). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L. & Eubanks, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media: The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 960–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., Flanagan, M., Benjamin Jr., A. J., Eubanks, J. & Valentine, J. C. (2004). Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content on aggressive thoughts and behavior. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 199–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anderson, C. A. & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 772–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., Rothstein, H. R. & Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: A meta-analytic. Review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aquino, K., Lewis, M. U. & Bradfield, M. (1999). Justice constructs, negative affectivity, and employee deviance: a proposed model and empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1073–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Archer, J. (1991). The influence of testosterone on human aggression. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 1–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Archer, J. (2006). Testosterone and human aggression: An evaluation of the challenge hypothesis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioural Reviews, 30, 319–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D. & Akert, R. M. (2008). Sozialpsychologie (6. Aufl.). München: Pearson Studium.Google Scholar
  16. Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Oxford: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barlett, C. P., Harris, R. J. & Bruey, C. (2007). The effect of the amount of blood in a violent video game on aggression, hostility, and arousal. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 539–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baron, R. A. (1977). Human aggression. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Baron, R. A. & Byrne, D. (2002). Social psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  22. Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 59–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Berkowitz, L. & LePage, A. (1967). Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 202–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bettencourt, B. A. & Miller, N. (1996). Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 422–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Björkqvist, K. (1994). Sex differences in physical, verbal, and indirect aggression: a review of recent research. Sex Roles, 30, 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behaviour, 18, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Björkqvist, K., Österman, K. & Hjelt-Bäck, M. (1994). Aggression among university employees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 173–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Book, A. S., Starzyk, K. B. & Quinsey, V. L. (2001). The relationship between testosterone and aggression: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behaviour, 6, 579–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Boxer, P. B., Goldstein, S. E., Musher-Eizenman, D., Dubow, E. F. & Heretick, D. (2005). Developmental issues in school-based aggression prevention from a social-cognitive perspective. Journal of Primary Prevention, 26, 383–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Buckley, K. E., Winkel, R. E. & Leary, M. R. (2004). Reactions to acceptance and rejection: Effects of level and sequence of relational evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 14–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bundeskriminalamt (2012). Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2011, Jahrbuch (59. Ausg.). Bundeskriminalamt: Wiesbaden. Retrieved from Scholar
  32. Bushman, B. J. (1998). Priming effects of media violence on the accessibility of aggressive constructs in memory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 537–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bushman, B. J. & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F. & Phillips, C. M. (2001). Do people aggress to improve their mood? Catharsis beliefs, affect regulation opportunity, and aggressive responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 17–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bushman, B. J., Baumeister, R. F. & Stack, A. D. (1999). Catharsis, aggression, and persuasive influence: Selffulfilling or self-defeating prophecies? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 367–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bushman, B. J. & Huesmann, L. R. (2006). Short-term and long-term effects of violent media on aggression in children and adults. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160, 349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bushman, B. J., Ridge, R. D., Das, E., Key, C. W. & Busath, G. L. (2007). When god sanctions killing: Effect of scriptural violence on aggression. Psychological Science, 18, 204–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Coccaro, E. F., McCloskey, M. S., Fitzgerald, D. A. & Phan, K. L. (2007). Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biological Psychiatry, 62, 168–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Camerer, C. & Thaler, R. H. (1995). Anomalies: Ultimatums, dictators and manners. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Carlsmith, J. M. & Anderson, C. A. (1979). Ambient temperature and the occurrence of collective violence: A new analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 337–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Darwin, C. (1859). On the origin of species. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  42. Davidson, R. J., Jackson, D. C. & Kalin, N. H. (2000). Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: Perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 890–909.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H. & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Freud, S. (1915). Trieb und Triebschicksale. In A. Freud, M. Bonaparte, E. Bibring, W. Hoffer, E. Kris & O. Osakower (Eds.) (1991), Gesammelte Werke, Band 10. Werke aus den Jahren 1913–1917 (8. Aufl., S. 209–232). Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer.Google Scholar
  45. Freud, S. (1930). Das Unbehagen in der Kultur. Wien: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag.Google Scholar
  46. Fischer, P. & Greitemeyer, T. (2006). Music and aggression. The impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1165–1176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T., Kastenmüller, A., Vogrincic, C. & Sauer, A. (2011). The effects of risk-glorifying media exposure on risk-positive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 367–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fischer, P., Greitemeyer, T., Morton, T., Kastenmüller, A., Postmes, T., Frey, D., Kubitzki, J. & Odenwälder, J. (2009). The racing-game effect. Why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1395–1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fischer, P., Kastenmüller, A. & Greitemeyer, T. (2010). Media violence and the self: The impact of personalized gaming characters in aggressive video games on aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 192–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fischer, P., Kubitzki, J., Guter, S. & Frey, D. (2007). Virtual driving and risk taking: Do racing games increase risk taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13, 22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Geen, R. G. (1990). Human aggression. Pacific Grove: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  52. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Signorielli, N., Morgan, M. & Jackson-Beeck, M. (1979). The Demonstration of Power: Violence Profile No. 10. Journal of Communication, 29, 177–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Giacalone, E., Tansella, M., Valzelli, L. & Garattini, S. (1968). Brain serotonin metabolism in isolated aggressive mice. Biochemical Pharmakology, 17, 1315–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gollwitzer, M., Meder, M. & Schmitt, M. (2011). What gives victims satisfaction when they seek revenge? European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Güth, W., Schmittberger, R. & Schwarze, B. (1982). An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 3, 367–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Herr, N. (2007). Television statistics. Internet Resources to accompany the Sourcebook for Teaching Science. Retrieved from & health.htmlGoogle Scholar
  57. Hershcovis, M. S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K. A., Dupré, K. E., Inness, M., LeBlanc, M. M. & Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 228–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kutner, L. & Olson, C. (2008). Grand theft childhood: The surprising truth about violent video games and what parents can do. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  59. Leary, M. R., Twenge, J. M. & Quinlivan, E. (2006). Interpersonal rejection as a determinant of anger and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 111–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. LeDoux, J. E. (2002). Synaptic self – How our brains become who we are. New York: Viking Adult.Google Scholar
  61. Lorenz, K. (1966). On aggression. London: Methuen Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Lösel, F. & Beelmann, A. (2003). Effects of childs skills training in preventing anti-social behavior: A systematic review of randomized evaluations. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 587, 84–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lösel, F. & Bliesener, T. (2003). Aggression und Delinquenz unter Jugendlichen. Neuwied: Luchterhand.Google Scholar
  64. Miczek, K. A., Fish, E. W., de Bold, J. F. & de Almeida, R. M. (2002). Social and neural determinants of aggressive behavior: pharmacotherapeutic targets at serotonin, dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid systems. Psychopharmakology, 163, 434–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, N. E. (1941). The frustration-aggression hypothesis. Psychological Review, 48, 337–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paik, H. & Comstock, G. (1994). The effects of television violence on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis. Communication research, 21, 516–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Placidi, G. P., Oquendo, M. A., Malone, K. M., Huang, Y. Y., Ellis, S. P. & Mann J. J. (2001). Aggressivity suicide attempts, and depression: relationship to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite levels. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 783–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanfey, A. G., Rilling, J. K., Aronson, J. A., Nystrom, L. E. & Cohen, J. D. (2003). The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum Game. Science, 300, 1755–1758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Scherer, K. R., Abeles, R. P. & Fischer, C. S. (1975). Human aggression and conflict: Interdisciplinary perspectives. Oxford, England: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  70. Skinner, B. F. (1978). Was ist Behaviorismus? Reinbek: Rowohlt.Google Scholar
  71. Torgler, B. (2003). Tax morale, rule-governed behaviour and trust. Constitutional Political Economy, 14, 119–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Twenge, J. M., Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M. & Stucke, T. S. (2001). If you can’t join them, beat them: Effects of social exclusion on aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 1058–1069.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2011). 2011 Global Study on Homicide. Retrieved from Scholar
  74. Vazire, S. & Funder, D. C. (2006). Impulsivity and the self-defeating behaviour of narcissists. Personality and Social Psycholgy Review, 10, 154–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Watson, D., Clark, L. A. & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wilson, S. J. & Lipsey, M. W. (2007). School-based interventions for aggressive and disruptive behavior: Update of a meta-analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33, 130–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zillmann, D. (1983). Cognition-excitation interdependencies in aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 14, 51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Fischer
    • 1
  • Kathrin Asal
    • 1
  • Joachim I. Krueger
    • 2
  1. 1.Universität RegensburgRegensburg
  2. 2.Brown UniversityBrown

Personalised recommendations