Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants

  • Anke Roiger
  • Heidi Huntrieser
  • Hans Schlager
Part of the Research Topics in Aerospace book series (RTA)


Air pollutants may be transported over several 1 000 km ranges, across continents, oceans (intercontinental), hemispheres, or even globally, depending on lifetime and other properties. Transported emissions include primary pollutants emitted from industry and vehicles (e.g., nitric oxide) and natural pollutants released by forest fires (e.g., soot). Also secondary pollutants (e.g., ozone) that are formed near the source region undergo transport. Recent advances in understanding atmospheric transport pathways, source-receptor relationships, and transformation of pollutants during transport are described.


Deep Convection Pollution Transport Free Troposphere Pollution Plume Biomass Burning Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arnold, F., Schneider, J., Gollinger, K., Schlager, H., Schulte, P., Hagen, D.E., Whitefield, P.D., van Velthofen, P.: Observation of upper tropospheric sulfur dioxide- and acetone-pollution: potential implications for hydroxy radical and aerosol formation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1 (1997). doi: 10.1029/96GL03693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brock, C.A., Hudson, P.K., Lovejoy, E.R., Sullivan, A., Nowak, J.B., Huey, L.G., Cooper, O.R., Cziczo, D.J., de Gouw, J., Fehsenfeld, F.C., et al.: Particle characteristics following cloud-modified transport from Asia to North America. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D23S26 (2004). doi:  10.1029/2003jd004198
  3. Eckhardt, S., Stohl, A., Wernli, H., James, P., Forster, C., Spichtinger, N.: A 15-year climatology of warm conveyor belts. J. Clim. 17,   (2004). doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017
  4. Engvall, A.-C., Ström, J., Tunved, P., Krejci, R., Schlager, H., Minikin, A.: The radiative effect of an aged, internally mixed Arctic aerosol originating from lower-latitude biomass burning. Tellus B 61(4), 677–684 (2009). doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00432.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fiedler, V., Arnold, F., Schlager, H., Dörnbrack, A., Pirjola, L., Stohl, A.: East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe—Part 2: Evolution and potential impact. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4729–4745 (2009a). doi: 10.5194/acp-9-4717-2009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fiedler, V., Nau, R., Ludmann, S., Arnold, F., Schlager, H., Stohl, A.: East Asian SO2 pollution plume over Europe—Part 1: Airborne trace gas measurements and source identification by particle dispersion model simulations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 4717–4728 (2009b). doi: 10.5194/acp-9-4717-2009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fiedler, V., Arnold, F., Ludmann, S., Minikin, A., Hamburger, T., Pirjola, L., Dörnbrack, A., Schlager, H.: African biomass burning plumes over the Atlantic: aircraft based measurements and implications for H2SO4 and HNO3 mediated smoke particle activation. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 3211–3225 (2011). doi: 10.5194/acp-11-3211-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fischer, H., de Reus, M., Traub, M., Williams, J., Lelieveld, J., de Gouw, J., Warneke, C., Schlager, H., Minikin, A., Scheele, R., Siegmund, P.: Deep convective injection of boundary layer air into the lowermost stratosphere at midlatitudes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 739–745 (2003). doi: 10.5194/acp-3-739-2003 Google Scholar
  9. Hudman, R.C., Jacob, D.J., Cooper, O.R., Evans, M.J., Heald, C.L., Park, R.J., Fehsenfeld, F. Flocke, Holloway, J., Huebler, G. et al.: Ozone production in transpacific Asian pollution plumes and implications for ozone air quality in California. J. Geophys. Res., 108, D23S210 (2004). doi:  10.1029/2004JD004974
  10. Huntrieser, H., Heland, J., Schlager, H., Forster, C., Stohl, A., Aufmhoff, H., Arnold, F., Scheel, H.E., Campana, M., Gilge, S., et al.: Intercontinental air pollution transport from North America to Europe: experimental evidence from airborne measurements and surface observations. J. Geophys. Res. 110, D01305 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004JD005045 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Huntrieser, H., Schlager, H., Lichtenstern, M., Stock, P., Hamburger, T., Höller, H., Schmidt, K., Betz, H.-D., Ulanovsky, A., Ravegnani, F.: Mesoscale convective systems observed during AMMA and their impact on the NOx and O3 budget over West Africa. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2503–2536 (2011). doi: 10.5194/acp-11-2503-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Klemm, O., Wehrhan, J., Schaller, E., Schlager, H., Krautstrunk, M.: Characterization of ozone plumes in eastern Germany. Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(15), 2021–2024 (1995). doi: 10.1029/95GL01322 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krautstrunk, M., Neumann-Hauf, G., Schlager, H., Klemm, O., Schaller, E.: Aircraft-based measurements of the three-dimensional distribution of gaseous pollutants over the highly industrialised area of Lausitz in eastern Germany. Air Pollution III. In: Observation and Simulation of Air Pollution—Results from SANA and EUMAC, Computational Mechanics vol. 4, pp. 69–77 (1995)Google Scholar
  14. Krautstrunk, M., Neumann-Hauf, G., Schlager, H., Klemm, O., Beyrich, F., Corsmeier, U., Kalthoff, N., Kotzian, M.: An experimental study on the planetary boundary layer transport of air pollutants over East Germany. Atmos. Environ. 34, 1247–1266 (2000). doi:  10.1016/s1352-2310(99)00124-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Law, K.S., Stohl, A.: Arctic air pollution: origins and impacts. Science. 315, 1537–1540 (2007). doi:  10.1126/science.1137695 Google Scholar
  16. Lawrence, M.G., Rasch, P.J., von Kuhlmann, R., Williams, J., Fischer, H., de Reus, M., Lelieveld, J., Crutzen, P.J., Schultz, M., Stier, P., et al.: Global chemical weather forecasts for field campaign planning: predictions and observations of large-scale features during MINOS, CONTRACE, and INDOEX. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 267–289 (2003). doi: 10.5194/acp-3-267-2003 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lelieveld, J., Berresheim, H., Borrmann, S., Crutzen, P.J., Dentener, F.J., Fischer, H., Feichter, J., Flatau, P.J., Heland, J., Holzinger, R., et al.: Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science 298, 25 (2002). doi: 10.1126/science.1075457 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Methven, J., et al.: Establishing Lagrangian connections between observations within air masses crossing the Atlantic during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 111, D23S62 (2006). doi:  10.1029/2006JD007540
  19. Monks, P., Granier, C., Fuzzi, S., Stohl, A., Williams, M.L., Akimoto, H., Amann, M., Baklanov, A., Baltensperger, U., Bey, I.N., et al.: Atmospheric composition change—global and regional air quality. Atmos. Environ. 43, 33 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.08.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Petzold, A., Weinzierl, B., Huntrieser, H., Stohl, A., Real, E., Cozic, J., Fiebig, M., Hendricks, J., Lauer, A., Law, K., et al.: Perturbation of the European free troposphere aerosol by North American forest fire plumes during the ICARTT-ITOP experiment in Summer 2004. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5105–5127 (2007). doi: 10.5194/acp-7-5105-2007 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pisso, I., Real, E., Law, K.S., Legras, B., Bousserez, N., Attié, J.L., Schlager, H.: Estimation of mixing in the troposphere from Lagrangian trace gas reconstructions during long-range pollution plume transport. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D19301 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JD011289 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Real, E., Law, K., Weinzierl, B., Fiebig, M., Petzold, A., Wild, O., Methven, J., Arnold, S., Stohl, A., Huntrieser, H. et al.: Processes influencing ozone levels in Alaskan forest fire plumes during long-range transport over the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10S41 (2007) doi:  10.1029/2006JD007576
  23. Real, E., Law, K.S., Schlager, H., Roiger, A., Huntrieser, H., Methven, J., Cain, M., Holloway, J., Neuman, J.A., Ryerson, T., et al.: Lagrangian analysis of low level anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 7737–7754 (2008). doi: 10.5194/acp-8-7737-2008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roiger, A.: Biomass burning pollution in the summer time Arctic atmosphere: development and deployment of a novel CI-ITMS instrument for PAN detection. Dissertation, Universität Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  25. Roiger, A., Schlager, H., Schaefler, A., Huntrieser, H., Scheibe, M., Aufmhoff, H., Cooper, O.R., Sodemann, H., Stohl, A., Burkhart, J.: In situ observation of Asian pollution transported into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 10975–10994 (2011). doi: 10.5194/acp-11-10975-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schlager, H., Huntrieser, H., Heland, J., Ziereis, H.: Analysis of convective and long-range transport of reactive nitrogen species over Europe using aircraft observations. EXPORT-E2 Final Report, EUROTRAC-2 ISS. In: Penkett, S., Law, K. S., Platt, U., Volz-Thomas, A. (eds.) GSF—National Research Center for Environment and Health, Munich, Germany, pp. 151–155 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. Schumann, U., Konopka, P., Baumann, R., Busen, R., Gerz, T., Schlager, H., Schulte, P., Volkert, H.: Estimate of diffusion parameters of aircraft exhaust plumes near the tropopause from nitric oxide and turbulence measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 100:(D7), 14, 147–114, 162 (1995) doi: 10.1029/95JD01277
  28. Schumann, U., Weinzierl, B., Reitebuch, O., Schlager, H., Minikin, A., Forster, C., Baumann, R., Sailer, T., Graf, K., Mannstein, H., et al.: Airborne observations of the Eyjafjalla volcano ash cloud over Europe during air space closure in April and May 2010. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 2245–2279 (2011). doi: 10.5194/acp-11-2245-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sodemann, H., Pommier, M., Arnold, S.R., Monks, S.A., Stebel, K., Burkhart, J.F., Hair, J.W., Diskin, G.S., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P.-F., et al.: Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 3631–3651 (2011). doi: 10.5194/acp-11-3631-2011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stohl, A., Haimberger, L., Scheele, M.P., Wernli, H.: An intercomparison of results from three trajectory models. Meteorol. Appl. 8, 127–135 (2001). doi: 10.1017/S1350482701002018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stohl, A., Forster, C., Eckhardt, S., Spichtinger, N., Huntrieser, H., Heland, J., Schlager, H., Wilhelm, S., Arnold, F., Cooper, O.: A backward modeling study of intercontinental pollution transport using aircraft measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D12):4370 (2003a) doi:  10.1029/2002JD002862
  32. Stohl, A., Huntrieser, H., Richter, A., Beirle, S., Cooper, O.R., Eckhardt, S., Forster, C., James, P., Spichtinger, N., Wenig, M., et al.: Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 969–985 (2003b). doi: 10.5194/acp-3-969-2003 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stohl, A., Forster, C., Huntrieser, H., Mannstein, H., McMillan, W.W., Petzold, A., Schlager, H., Weinzierl, B.: Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia—aerosol and chemical characterization. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 913–937 (2007). doi: 10.5194/acp-7-913-2007 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wernli, H., Bourqui, M.: A Lagrangian “1-year climatology’’ of (deep) cross-tropopause exchange in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res. 107,   (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001jd000812
  35. Wild, O., Law, K.S., McKenna, D.S., Bandy, B.J., Penkett, S.A., Pyle, J.A.: Photochemical trajectory modeling studies of the North Atlantic region during August 1993. J. Geophys. Res. 101: 29 269–229 288 (1996) doi:  10.1029/96JD00837

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DLR, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA)OberpfaffenhofenGermany

Personalised recommendations