Modeling Soft Handoffs’ Performance in a Realistic CDMA Network

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (volume 167)

Abstract

The advent of code division multiple access (CDMA) technology has offered solution to the incessant termination of ongoing calls experienced in second generation networks. Seamless connectivity is now made possible as these networks provide an uninterrupted-transfer loop known as the overlap region, which must be effectively managed to ensure efficient handoffs. This contribution adopts a practical approach to the soft handoff problem, with concrete experimental solution that will benefit network operators and the wireless research community. We achieve this by studying an existing CDMA cellular network over a period of two months. Under ideal conditions, we adapt the existing data to the COST-231 Hata pathloss model and derive a soft handoff (SHO) probability model, peculiar to the study environment and generic to similar environments. In order to draw effective conclusions and advise on best practices, the model was simulated for various coverage areas and propagation exponents. Simulation results confirm that SHO thresholds should be carefully chosen in order to minimize network defects.

Keywords

Propagation pathloss propagation exponent soft handoff probability soft handoff threshold 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abhayawardhana, V.S., Wassell, I.J., Crosby, D., Sellars, M.P., Brown, M.G.: Comparison of Empirical Propagation Path Loss Models for fixed Wireless Access Systems. In: Proceedings of 61st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2005-Spring, vol. 1, pp. 73–77 (2005)Google Scholar
  2. Aswa, M., Stark, W.E.: A Framework for Optimal Scheduling of Handoffs in Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunication Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, CA, pp. 1828–1833 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. Chang, J.W., Sung, D.K.: Adaptive Channel Reservation Scheme for Soft Handoff in DS-CDMA Cellular Systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 50(2), 341–353 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen, X.H.: Adaptive Traffic-load Shedding and its Capacity Gain in CDMA Cellular Systems. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, vol. 142(3), pp. 186–192 (1995)Google Scholar
  5. Choi, W., Kim, J.Y.: Forward-link capacity of a DS/CDMA System with Mixed Multirate Sources. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 50, 737–749 (2001)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forkel, I., Schinnenburg, M., Wouters, B.: Performance Evaluation of Soft Handover in a Realistic UMTS Network. In: 57th IEEE Semiannual Conference on Vehicular Technology (VTC 2003-Spring), vol. 3, pp. 1979–1983 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. Fu, H., Thompson, J.S.: Downlink Capacity Analysis in 3GPP WCDMA Networks System. In: Proceedings of Third International Conference on 3G Mobile Communication Technologies, pp. 534–538 (May 2002)Google Scholar
  8. Guerin, R.A.: Channel Occupancy Time Distribution in a Cellular Radio System. IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech. VT-35, 89–99 (1987)Google Scholar
  9. Homnan, B., Kunsriruksakul, V., Benjapolakul, W.: A Comparative Performance Evaluation of Soft Handoff between IS-95A and IS-95B/CDMA2000. In: IEEE APCCAS 2000, pp. 34–37 (2000)Google Scholar
  10. Kari, S., Mika, J., Jaana, L.S., Achim, W.: Soft Handover Gains in a Fast Power Controlled WCDMA Uplink. In: Proceedings of IEEE VTC 1999, pp. 1594–1598 (1999)Google Scholar
  11. Kim, D.K.: Characterization of Soft Handoff in CDMA System. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 48(4), 1195–1202 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lee, D.J., Un, C.K., Kim, B.C.: An Improved Soft Handover Initiation Algorithm in Microcellular Environment. In: Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Universal Personal Communication, vol. 1, pp. 310–314 (1996)Google Scholar
  13. Mihailescu, C., Lagrange, X., Godlewski, P.: Soft Handover Analysis in Downlink UMTS WCDMA System. In: Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Communications, pp. 279–285 (1999)Google Scholar
  14. Narrainen, R.P., Takawira, F.: Performance Analysis of Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 50(6), 1507–1517 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Prakash, R., Veeravilli, V.V.: Locally Optimal Soft Handoff Algorithms. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 52(2), 347–356 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rao, K.B., Mishia, L.N.: Soft Handoff in CDMA Systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 47(2), 710–714 (2000)Google Scholar
  17. Sheu, T.-L., Huei Hou, J.-H.: An Analytical Model of Cell Coverage for Soft Handoffs in Cellular CDMA Systems. GESTS Int’l Trans. Computer Science and Engineering 18(1), 209–223 (2005)Google Scholar
  18. Singh, N.P., Singh, B.: Effect of Soft Handover Parameters on CDMA Cellular Networks. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 110–115 (2005-2010)Google Scholar
  19. Singh, N.P., Singh, B.: Performance of Soft Handover Algorithm in Varied Propagation Environments. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Journal 45, 377–381 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. Stjin, N.P.: Study of soft handover in UMTS. Master Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark (2003)Google Scholar
  21. Su, S.L., Chen, J.Y., Huang, J.-H.: Performance Analysis of Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 14(9), 1762–1769 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Viterbi, A.J., Viterbi, A.M., Gilhousen, K.S., Zehavi, E.: Soft Handoff Extends CDMA cell coverage and increase Reverse Link Capacity. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas of Communications 12(8), 1281–1288 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang, S.S., Sridsha, S., Green, M.: Adaptive Soft Handoff Method Using Location Information. In: IEEE 55th Conference on Vehicular Technology, VTC Spring, vol. 4, pp. 1936–1940 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. Wang, S.-W., Wang, I.: Effects of Soft Handoff, Frequency Reuse and Non-ideal Antenna Sectorization on CDMA System Capacity. In: Proceedings of 43rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring, pp. 850–854 (1993)Google Scholar
  25. Yang, X., Ghaheri-Niri, S., Tafazolli, R.: Evaluation of Soft Handover Algorithms for UMTS. In: Proceedings of 11th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, vol. 26, pp. 772–776 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. Yang, X., Ghaheri-Niri, S., Tafazolli, R.: Performance of Power Triggered and E0/N0-Triggered Soft Handover Algorithms for UTRA. In: 3G Mobile Communication Technologies Conference Publication, vol. 477, pp. 7–10 (2001)Google Scholar
  27. Zhang, N., Holtzman, J.M.: Analysis of a CDMA Soft-handoff Algorithm. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 47(2), 710–714 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of UyoUyoNigeria

Personalised recommendations