Variability of the Earth’s orbit: The astronomical theory

  • Donald Rapp
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


A history of the origination and evolution of the astronomical theory (often called the ‘‘Milankovitch theory’’) was first provided by Imbrie and Imbrie (1979). Bol’shakov (2008) provided an interesting and valuable review of the various contributors to the astronomical theory of ice ages, emphasizing the early innovative ideas of James Croll who realized that orbital variations did not change total solar input to the Earth very much, but rather changed the distribution of solar energy by latitude. In addition, as Bol’shakov said: ‘‘Croll was the first to introduce Earth positive feedbacks that enhance insolation variations as a climatic influence.


High Latitude Solar Irradiance Orbital Parameter Solar Variability High Northern Latitude 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Rapp
    • 1
  1. 1.South PasadenaU.S.A.

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