Summary of climate variations

  • Donald Rapp
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


Cooling over the past 50 million years Zachos et al. (2001) studied oxygen isotope ratios in ancient sedimentary deposits and thereby estimated deep-sea temperatures over the past 60 million years. Hansen et al. (2010) modified their results to take into account the fact that isotope data represent a combination of deep-sea temperature and ice sheet volume and, during periods when there were ice sheets, the data had to be corrected for this (see Figure 2.7). Deep-sea temperature dropped by about 12_C over the past 50 million years.


Global Average Temperature Planktic Foraminifera Proglacial Lake Glacial Condition Global Average Temperature Change 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald Rapp
    • 1
  1. 1.South PasadenaU.S.A.

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