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Introduction

  • Daniele Gaggero
Chapter
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)

Abstract

Cosmic Rays (CRs) are energetic particles that continuously hit the top of the Earth atmosphere at the considerable rate of \({\sim }10^4\,{\rm m^{-2}\, s^{-1}}\). The exact composition depends on which part of the spectrum is considered, but we can say that approximately 86 % of these particles are protons, 11 % are alpha articles, 1 % consists of stable nuclei, up to Uranium, then 2 % are electrons and a non negligible fraction (about 1 %) consists of antiparticles (positrons and antiprotons).

Keywords

Solar Wind Dark Matter Important Open Problem Galactic Magnetic Field Convective Wind 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Gaggero
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)—Sezione di PisaPisaItaly

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