• Daniele Gaggero
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


Cosmic Rays (CRs) are energetic particles that continuously hit the top of the Earth atmosphere at the considerable rate of \({\sim }10^4\,{\rm m^{-2}\, s^{-1}}\). The exact composition depends on which part of the spectrum is considered, but we can say that approximately 86 % of these particles are protons, 11 % are alpha articles, 1 % consists of stable nuclei, up to Uranium, then 2 % are electrons and a non negligible fraction (about 1 %) consists of antiparticles (positrons and antiprotons).


Solar Wind Dark Matter Important Open Problem Galactic Magnetic Field Convective Wind 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    A.W. Strong, I.V. Moskalenko, V.S. Ptuskin, Cosmic-ray propagation and interactions in the galaxy. Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 57, 285–327 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L.J. Gleeson, W.I. Axford, Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Astrophys. J. 154, 1011 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Chang et al. [ATIC collaboration], An excess of cosmic ray electrons at energies of 300–800GeV. Nature 456, 362–365 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.A. Abdo et al. [Fermi Collaboration], Measurement of the cosmic ray \(e^{+}+e^{-}\) spectrum from 20GeV to 1TeV with the fermi large area telescope. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(18), 181101 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Ackermann et al. [Fermi Collaboration], Fermi LAT observations of cosmic-ray electrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV. Phys. Rev. D 82(9), 092004 (2010)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Adriani et al. [PAMELA Collaboration], An anomalous positron abundance in cosmic rays with energies 1.5–100 GeV. Nature 458, 607–609 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Grasso, S. Profumo, A.W. Strong, L. Baldini, R. Bellazzini, E.D. Bloom, J. Bregeon, G. Di Bernardo, D. Gaggero, N. Giglietto, T. Kamae, L. Latronico, F. Longo, M.N. Mazziotta, A.A. Moiseev, A. Morselli, J.F. Ormes, M. Pesce-Rollins, M. Pohl, M. Razzano, C. Sgro, G. Spandre, T.E. Stephens, On possible interpretations of the high energy electron-positron spectrum measured by the fermi large area telescope. Astropart. Phys. 32, 140–151 (2009)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniele Gaggero
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)—Sezione di PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations