Fetal Progression in Birth Canal: State of the Art

  • Anna Maria Dückelmann
  • Karim D. Kalache


Spontaneous vaginal delivery is associated with the lowest mortality and morbidity for both mother and child compared to operative delivery. Therefore, it is the preferred outcome for most pregnancies [1–5]. Most women wish to have a spontaneous delivery without obstetric intervention [6]. Obstetricians and midwifes should support pregnant woman in achieving this goal. However, despite intensive effort, some women fail to progress in the second stage of labor, and thus, they require an operative delivery.


Cesarean Section Rate Fetal Head Digital Examination Instrumental Delivery Ischial Spine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ObstetricsCharité – University HospitalBerlinGermany

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