The Normal Physiology of Aging

  • Kenneth Mak


Aging involves complex biological changes that affect most organ systems. These changes lead to a gradual decline in functional capacity and an increasing vulnerability to disease and external insults. Aging-related changes may influence how a disease manifests and the severity of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of these changes and suggests the need for a high index of suspicion and the need to moderate the treatment plan to accommodate the specific needs of the elderly patient.


Elderly Patient Diastolic Heart Failure Aging Liver Physiologic Reserve Aging Heart 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryKhoo Teck Puat HospitalSingaporeSingapore

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