Advertisement

Can Topological Pre-Culling of Faces Improve Rendering Performance of City Models in Google Earth?

  • Claire EllulEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)

Abstract

3D City Models are becoming more prevalent, and have many applications including city walk-throughs or fly-throughs to show what a new building would look like in situ, or whether a view or light will be blocked by a new structure, flood modeling, satellite and signal modeling. Often, these models are created using a process of extrusion of 2D topographic mapping, resulting in Level of Detail 1 buildings with flat roofs. The models can contain many thousands of polyhedra, which in turn results in performance issues when attempting to visualize such models in virtual earth applications such as Google Earth. This paper presents the results of a series of tests to determine whether using a topological approach to pre-cull hidden Faces from the model can bring about performance improvements. Such an approach could also be said to be one step towards the generalization of such models to support multiple levels of detail.

Keywords

3D city models Topology Rendering Performance Intersection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the GeoInformation Group for the provision of the UK Map dataset, and in particular Alun Jones for his initial encouragement. Thanks also go to the team at Snowflake Ltd. for the GO Loader software used to load the map data into Oracle Spatial, and to Richard Goodman and Intergraph Corporation for the use of Geomedia Professional to visualize the datasets stored in Oracle.

References

  1. Aien A, Ali A, Kalantari M, Rajabifard A, Williamson I (2011) Advanced principles of 3D cadastral data modelling. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on 3D cadastres, organized by FIG, EuroSDR and TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands, November 2011, 271–290 [online] Available from: http://3dcadastres2011.nl/programme/ Accessed 3rd Jan 2012, 377–396
  2. Alam M (2011) GISt Report No. 5 shadow effect on 3D city modelling for photovoltaic cells, ISBN: 978-90-77029-27-5 ISSN: 1569-0245Google Scholar
  3. Basanow J, Neis P, Neubauer S, Schilling A, Zipf A (2008) Towards 3D spatial data infrastructures (3D SDI) based on open standards—experiences, results and future issues. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D GeoInformation systems, Springer, Chapter 2, pp 19–46Google Scholar
  4. Batty M, Chapman D, Evans S, Haklay M, Keupers S, Shiode N, Hudson Smith A, Torrens P (2001) Visualising the city: communicating urban design to planners and decision-makers. In: Brail R, Klosterman R (eds) Planning support systems, models and visualisation tools. ESRI Press and Center Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University, Redland, pp 405–443Google Scholar
  5. Blechschmied H, Coors V, Etz M (2006) Augmented reality and location-based services projects. In: Zlatanova S, Prosperi D (eds) Large-scale 3D data integration: challenges and opportunities, Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
  6. Boguslawski P, Gold C, Ledoux H (2011) Modelling and analysing 3D buildings with a primal/dual data structure. ISPRS J Photogram Rem Sens 66:188–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen J, Chen C (2008) Foundations of 3D graphics programming: using JOGL and Java3D, 2nd edn. Springer publishing company, ISBN: 9781848002838Google Scholar
  8. Coors V, Hunlich K, On G (2009) Constraint-based generation and visualization of 3D city models. In: Lee J, Zlatanova S (eds) 3D geoinformation sciences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  9. Curtis E (2008) Serving CityGML via web feature services in the OGC web services –Phase 4 Testbed, Models, In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  10. Carrión D, Lorenz A, Kolbe T (2010) Estimation of the energetic rehabilitation state of buildings for the city of berlin using a 3D City model represented in CityGML. International archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information sciences, vol XXXVIII-4/W15Google Scholar
  11. Ellul C, Haklay M, Francis L, Rahemtulla H (2009) A mechanism to create community maps for non-technical users, GEOWS ‘09 Proceedings of the 2009 international conference on advanced geographic information systems and web services, IEEE computer societyGoogle Scholar
  12. ESRI (2011) ArcGIS 3D analyst [online] Available from: http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/extensions/3danalyst/index.html Accessed 12th Jan 2012
  13. Evans S, Hudson-Smith A, Batty M (2007) 3-D GIS: Virtual London and beyond an exploration of the 3-D GIS experience involved in the creation of virtual London, CyberGeo—Eur J GeogrGoogle Scholar
  14. Fabritius G, Kranigg J, Krecklau L, Manthei C, Hornung A, Habbecke H, Kobbelt L (2007) City virtualization—coursework [online] Available from http://openmesh.org/uploads/media/vrar_01.pdf, Accessed 12th Jan 2012
  15. Fan H, Meng L, Jahnke M (2009) Generalization of 3D buildings modelled by CityGML. In: Cartwright W, Gartner G, Meng L, Peterson M (eds) Lecture notes in geoinformation and cartography. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  16. Fredericque B, Lapierre A (2009) 3D City GIS—A major step towards sustainable infrastructure—a Bentley white paper [online] Available from, 3D City GIS—A major step towards sustainable infrastructure Accessed 20th Jan 2012Google Scholar
  17. GeoChalkboard (2012) Using KML regions to display large datasets in Google Earth, [online]. Available from: http://geochalkboard.wordpress.com/2008/01/14/using-kml-regions-to-display-large-gis-datasets-in-google-earth-part-1/ Accessed 13th Jan 2012
  18. Glander T, Dollner J (2008) Techniques for generalizing building geometry of complex virtual 3D city models. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  19. Google (2012) Google company history [online] Available from : http://www.google.com/about/corporate/company/history.html Accessed 21st Jan 2012
  20. Google (2012b) Keyhole markup language reference [online] Available from http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/ Accessed 21st Jan 2012
  21. Google Earth (2012)—3D Buildings showcase [online] Available from: http://www.google.co.uk/intl/en_uk/earth/explore/showcase/3dbuildings.html Accessed 12th Jan 2012
  22. Guercke R, Brenner C, Sester M (2009) Generalization of semantically enhanced 3d city models. Proceedings of the GeoWeb 2009 conference, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  23. Heipke C (2010) Crowdsourcing geospatial data. ISPRS J Photogram Rem Sens 65(6):550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Isikdag U, Zlatanova S (2010) Interactive modelling of buildings in Google Earth: a 3D tool for urban planning. In: Neutens T, De Maeyer P (eds.) Developments in 3D geo-information sciences, Springer, 52–70Google Scholar
  25. IT World (2012) Google Earth Announces 1 Billion Downloads [online] Available from: http://www.itworld.com/cloud-computing/210825/google-earth-announces-1-billion-downloads Accessed 21st Jan 2012
  26. Kada M (2007) A contribution to 3D generalisation, Photogrammetric week, 41–51Google Scholar
  27. Kada M (2009) The 3D Berlin project, Photogrammetric week, 331–340Google Scholar
  28. Kazar B, Kothuri R, van Oosterom P, Ravada S (2008) On valid and invalid three-dimensional geometries, in models. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  29. Khoo V (2011) 3D cadastre in Singapore. In: proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on 3d cadastres, organized by FIG, EuroSDR and TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands, November 2011, 271–290 [online] Available from: http://3dcadastres2011.nl/programme/ Accessed 3rd Jan 2012
  30. Kolbe T, Groger G, Plumer L (2005) CityGML—Interoperable access to 3D city models. In: van Oosterom P, Fendel E, Zlatanova S (eds) Proceedings of the international symposium on geo-information for disaster management, Delft, Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  31. Ledoux H, Meijers M (2011) Topologically consistent 3D city models obtained by extrusion. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 25(4):557–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Longley P, Goodchild M, Maguire D, Rhind D (2011) Geographical information systems and science, 3rd edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  33. Lowner M, Sasse A, Hecker P (2010) Needs and potential of 3D city information and sensor fusion technologies for vehicle positioning in urban environments. In: Neutens T and De Maeyer P (eds) Developments in 3D geoinformation sciences, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  34. Oracle (2011)—Oracle Spatial SDO_UTIL.EXTRUDE [online] Available from: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/B28359_01/appdev.111/b28400/sdo_util.htm#BJECJIIE Accessed 12th Jan 2012
  35. PhotoSynth (2012) About Photosynth [online] Available from: http://photosynth.net/about.aspx Accessed 12th Jan 2012
  36. Pouliot J, Vasseur M (2011) Spatial representation of condominium/co-ownership : comparison of Quebec and French cadastral system based on LADM specifications. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on 3D cadastres, organized by FIG, EuroSDR and TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands, November 2011, 271–290 [online] Available from: http://3dcadastres2011.nl/programme/ Accessed 3rd Jan 2012
  37. Pu S (2008) Automatic building modelling from terrestrial laser scanning. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  38. Richmond P, Romano D (2008) Automatic generation Of residential areas using geodemographics. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  39. Rigaux P, Scholl M, Voisard A (2000) Introduction to spatial databases: applications to GIS Morgan KaufmannGoogle Scholar
  40. Sester M (2007) 3D Visualization and generalization. 51st Photogrammetric week, Stuttgart Germany, 285–295Google Scholar
  41. Sketch-Up (2011) 3D modelling for everyone [online] Available from http://sketchup.google.com/ Accessed 17th Jan 2012
  42. Snowflake (2012) GO Loader—Load GML into your database of choice [online] Available from http://www.snowflakesoftware.com/products/goloader/ Accessed 21st Jan 2012
  43. Stoter J, de Kluijver H, Kurakula V (2008) Towards 3D environmental impact studies—example of noise. In: Van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, Springer, 2008, Chapter 2, 19-46Google Scholar
  44. Stoter J, de Kluijver H, Kurakula V (2008b) 3D noise mapping in urban areas. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 22(8):907–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stoter J, Salzmann M (2003) Where Do Cadastral Needs and Technical Possibilities Meet? In: van Oosterom P, Lemmen C (eds.) Computers, environment and urban systems, 27:4, 395-410Google Scholar
  46. Stoter J, Hendrik P, Louwman W, van Oosterom P, Wünsch B (2011) Registration of 3D situations in land administration in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on 3D cadastres, organized by FIG, EuroSDR and TU Delft, Delft, The Netherlands, November 2011, 27–290 [online] Available from: http://3dcadastres2011.nl/programme/ Accessed 3rd Jan 2012, 377-396
  47. Tse R, Gold D, Kidner D (2008) 3D City Modelling from LiDAR Data. In: Models van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  48. Coors V (2004) 3D modelling and visualisation. Comput Graphics 28(4):519–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Erp J, Cremers A, Kessens J (2011) Challenges in 3D geoinformation and participatory design and descision. In: Kolbe T, Konig G, Nagel C (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation sciences, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  50. Van Essen R (2008) Maps get real: digital maps evolving from mathematical line graphs to virtual reality models. In: van Oosterom P, Zlatanova S, Penninga F, Fendel E (eds) Advances in 3D geoinformation systems, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang L, Sohn G (2011) An integrated framework for reconstructing full 3d building models. In: Kolbe T, Konig G, Nagel C (eds), Advances in 3D geoinformation sciences, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  52. Worboys M, Duckham M (2004) GIS: a computing perspective, 2nd edn. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  53. Zabiki M (2011) OpenCL/OpenGL approach for studying active Brownian motionGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CivilEnvironmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations