Advertisement

Open Building Models: Towards a Platform for Crowdsourcing Virtual 3D Cities

  • Matthias UdenEmail author
  • Alexander Zipf
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography book series (LNGC)

Abstract

Within the last years, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) has developed rapidly and influenced the world of GIscience significantly. Most prominently, the Open Street Map (OSM) project maps our world in a detail never seen before in user-generated maps. Particularly within urban areas, the focus recently shifts from only streets towards buildings and other objects of the environment such as parks or street furniture. However, this innovation is mostly restricted to 2D so far. In order to come closer to the Digital Earth, it needs to be discussed, how the 3D aspect can be integrated into such VGI-projects. This article has two objectives that are closely related: firstly, the current situation of 3D-VGI is reviewed and crucial issues for future development are pointed out. This leads to the concept of defining a free and open web repository for architectural 3D building models. Therefore secondly, the concept of such a new web platform called Open Building Models is presented. This is an important effort towards 3D-VGI. The models can be linked to OSM objects and displayed by a dedicated 3D viewer. This can extend the possibilities to crowdsource 3D city models in the future.

Keywords

Volunteered geographic information Open street map 3D city models 3D spatial data infrastructures 3D building modelling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all proofreaders who helped to improve this article and particularly all contributors to the OSM-3D project. This research has been partially funded by the Klaus-Tschira Foundation (KTS) Heidelberg.

References

  1. Brenner C (2005) Building reconstruction from images and laser scanning. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 6(3–4):187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cloudmade (2012) Application gallery. http://cloudmade.com/application-gallery. Accessed 09/01/2012
  3. Coleman DJ, Georgiadou Y, Labonte J (2009) Volunteered geographic information: the nature and motivation of produsers. Int J Spat Data Infrastruct Res 4:332–358Google Scholar
  4. Debevec PE (1996) Modeling and rendering architecture from photographs. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  5. Elgan M (2011) Kinect: microsoft’s accidental success story. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9217737/Kinect_Microsoft_s_accidental_success_story. Accessed 11/01/2012
  6. Förstner W (1999) 3D-city models: automatic and semiautomatic acquisition methods. In: Fritsch D, Spiller R (eds) Photogrammetric Week ‘99. Wichmann, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  7. Früh C, Zakhor A (2004) An automated method for large-scale, ground-based city model acquisition. Int J Comput Vision 60(1):5–24. doi: 10.1023/B:VISI.0000027787.82851.b6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goetz M, Lauer J, Auer M (2012) An algorithm based methodology for the creation of a regularly updated global online map derived from volunteered geographic information. Paper presented at the 4th international conference on advanced geographic information systems, applications and services geoprocessing, Valencia, Spain, 31/01/2012Google Scholar
  9. Goetz M, Zipf A (2012) Towards defining a framework for the automatic derivation of 3D cityGML models from volunteered geographic information. Int J 3D Inf Model (IJ3DIM) 1(2):496–507Google Scholar
  10. Goetz M, Zipf A (2012) The evolution of geocrowd sourcing: bringing volunteered geographic information to the 3D. In: Sui D, Elwood S, Goodchild M (eds) Volunteered geographic information, public participation, and crowdsourced production of geographic knowledge. Springer, Berlin (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Goodchild M (2007) Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal 69:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Google (2012) Earth. http://www.google.com/earth. Accessed 09/01/2012
  13. Gore A (1998) The digital earth: understanding our planet in the 21st century. Aust surveyor 43(2):89–91Google Scholar
  14. Haklay M (2010) How good is volunteered geographical information? a comparative study of open street map and ordnance survey datasets. Environ Plan B Plan Des 37(4):682–703. doi: 10.1068/b35097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haklay M, Weber P (2008) Open street map: user-generated street maps. IEEE Pervasive Comput 7(4):12–18. doi: 10.1109/MPRV.2008.80 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kendzi (2011) 3D plug-in for josm. http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Kendzi3d. Accessed 13/12/2011
  17. Klank U, Zeeshan M, Beetz M (2009) 3D model selection from an internet database for robotic vision. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA 2009), Kobe, JapanGoogle Scholar
  18. Kolbe TH (2009) Representing and exchanging 3D city models with cityGML. In: Lee J, Zlatanova S (eds) Lecture notes in geoinformation and cartography: 3D geoinformation sciences, Springer, Heidelberg, pp 15–31. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-87395-2_2 Google Scholar
  19. Lai K, Fox D (2009) 3D laser scan classification using web data and domain adaptation. In: Proceedings of robotics: science and systems, Seattle, USAGoogle Scholar
  20. Mayer C, Zipf A (2009) Integration and visualization of dynamic sensor data into 3D spatial data infrastructures in a standardized way. Paper presented at the geoviz 2009, contribution of geovisualization to the concept of the digital city, Workshop, Hamburg, Germany, 05/03/2009Google Scholar
  21. Müller P, Zeng G, Wonka P, Van Gool L (2007) Image-based procedural modelling of facades. ACM Trans Graph (TOG) 26(3):85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neis P, Zielstra D, Zipf A (2012) The street network evolution of crowdsourced maps: open street map in Germany 2007–2011. Future Internet 4:1–21. doi: 10.3390/fi4010001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. OGC (2011) Open geospatial consortium 3D portayal interoperability experiment (3dpie). http://www.opengeospatial.org/projects/initiatives/3dpie. Accessed 13/12/2011
  24. OSM-3D (2012) The open street map 3D project. http://www.osm-3d.org/home.en.htm. Accessed 27/03/2012
  25. OSM Wiki (2011a) 3D development. http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/3D_Development. Accessed 16/12/2011
  26. OSM Wiki (2011b) Map feature list. http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Map_Features. Accessed 14/11/2011
  27. Over M, Schilling A, Neubauer S, Zipf A (2010) Generating web-based 3D city models from open street map: the current situation in Germany. Comput Environ Urban Syst 34(6):496–507. doi: 10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panoramio (2012) Map. http://www.panoramio.com/map. Accessed 09/01/2012
  29. Pomaska G (2009) Utilization of photosynth point clouds for 3D object reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the 22nd CIPA symposium, Kyoto, JapanGoogle Scholar
  30. RenderLights (2012) Viewer for google 3D warehouse. http://www.renderlights.com/?p=103745. Accessed 10/12/2012
  31. Rocchini C, Cignoni P, Montani C, Pingi P, Scopigno R (2001) A low cost 3D scanner based on structured light. Comput Graph Forum 20(3):299–308. doi: 10.1111/1467-8659.00522 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sampath A, Shan J (2010) Segmentation and reconstruction of polyhedral building roofs from aerial lidar point clouds. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 48(3):1554–1567. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2009.2030180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schilling A, Over M, Neubauer S, Neis P, Walenciak G, Zipf A (2009) Interoperable location based services for 3D cities on the web using user generated content from open street map. Paper presented at the 27th urban data management symposium (UDMS 2009), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 24—26/06/2009Google Scholar
  34. Simio (2012) Enhancing 3D animation with google warehouse. http://www.simio.com/resources/videos/Enhancing-3D-Animation-with-Google-Warehouse.htm. Accessed 10/12/2012
  35. Stadtmessungsamt (2012) Stuttgart 3D-stadtmodell. http://www.stuttgart.de/item/show/21491. Accessed 09/01/2012
  36. Strassenburg-Kleciak M (2011) Roof table proposal. http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/DE:Roof_table. Accessed 14/11/2011
  37. Wang Y-F (2011) A comparison study of five 3D modelling systems based on the sfm principles. Technical Report 2011-01. Visualize Inc., Goleta, USAGoogle Scholar
  38. WikiMapia (2012) http://wikimapia.org. Accessed 09/01/2012
  39. Williamson I, Rajabifard A, Wallace J, Bennett R (2011) Spatially enabled society. Paper presented at the FIG working week 2011, Marrakech, Morocco, 19/05/2011Google Scholar
  40. Willmes C, Baaser U, Volland K, Bareth G (2010) Internet based distribution and visualization of a 3D model of the university of cologne campus. Paper presented at the 3rd ISDE digital earth summit, Nessebar, Bulgaria, 14/06/2010Google Scholar
  41. Yiakoumettis CP, Bardis G, Miaoulis G, Plemenos D, Ghazanfarpour D (2010) Virtual globe based collaborative 3D city modelling. Intell Comput Graph 321:165–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations