Advertisement

Urban Transport Dynamics

  • Surya Raj Acharya
  • Shigeru Morichi
Chapter
Part of the Transportation Research, Economics and Policy book series (TRES)

Abstract

Urban transport system, which comprises many interconnected subsystems, is characterized by complexities. Some observers even described it as “a system of system” (e.g., see Kaijser 2005). The performance of urban transport depends upon the state and interactions of all related factors of these subsystems and other exogenous factors. However, changes in economic, demographic, and spatial aspects of the metropolitan area bring corresponding changes in the state of various system elements. Most importantly, the pattern of transport demand along with users preference changes over time (Mayer and Miller 2001). The multiple subsystems undergoing dynamic changes significantly increase the complexities of the urban transport system and, thereby, pose difficult challenges to the policymakers. Several policy paradoxes and dilemma are the norms rather than exceptions in the domain of urban transport policy. Understanding such complex and dynamic characteristics of urban transport system is essential to explore effective policy options particularly for developing Asian megacities. This would also help to overcome the apparent dichotomy of short-term versus long-term perspective, which often takes the center stage while debating important urban transport policies particularly in developing countries. The core arguments advanced in this chapter are based on the premise that the notion of short term versus long term is, in a way, false dichotomy and is basically the result of ignoring underlying currents of urban transport dynamics while setting policy strategies.

Keywords

Public Transport Policy Measure Mode Choice Travel Behavior Urban Transport 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Acharya SR (2005) Motorization and urban mobility in developing countries: exploring policy option through dynamic simulation. J Eastern Asia Soc Transp Stud 5(2005):4113–4128Google Scholar
  2. Altshuler A, Luberoff D (2003) Mega-projects. Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, p 214Google Scholar
  3. Arthur B (1994) Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  4. Ben-Akiva M, Lerman S (1985) Discrete choice analysis: theory and application to travel demand. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  5. Bertalanffy L (1969) General system theory: foundation, development, application. George Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Button KJ, Hensher DA (2005) Introduction. In: Button KJ, Hensher DA (eds) Handbook of transport strategy, policy and institutions, vol 6. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Chu X, Polzin S (1998) Considering build-later for major transit investments. Transp Res A 32:393–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook ND (1979) Systemic stability and flexibility. J Soc Biol Syst 2(4):315–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. David PA (1986) Understanding the economics of QWERTY: the necessity of history. In: Parker WN (ed) Economic history and the modern economist. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp 30–49Google Scholar
  10. De Soto H (2009) The theory of dynamic efficiency. Taylor & Francis, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  11. Dolan EG, Lindsay DE (1988) Economics, 2nd edn. Scott Foresman, GlenviewGoogle Scholar
  12. Dopfer K (2005) Evolutionary economics: a theoretical framework. In: Dopfer K (ed) The evolutionary foundations of economics. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forrester JW (1969) Urban dynamics. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  14. Forrester JW (1971) Principles of systems. Pegasus, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  15. Goodwin PB (1977) Habit and hysteresis in mode choice. Urban Stud 14(1):95–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchinson BG (1974) Principles of urban transport systems planning. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Kaijser A (2005) Urban transport development: a complex issue. Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  18. Karlsson C, Anderson WP, Johansson B, Kobayashi K (2007) The management and measurement of infrastructure: performance, efficiency and innovation. Edward Elgar, Northampton, MAGoogle Scholar
  19. Manheim ML (1979) Fundamentals of transportation systems analysis, vol 1: basic concepts. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  20. May AD (2004) Transport and land use instrument for a better environment. In: Urban transport and environment. World conference on transport research society and institute for transport policy studiesGoogle Scholar
  21. May AD, Kelly C, Shepherd S (2005) Integrated transport strategies. In: Button KJ, Hensher DA (eds) Handbook of transport strategy, policy and institutions, vol 6. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Mayer MD, Miller EJ (2001) Urban transportation planning. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. McKelvey M, Holmen M (2006) Flexibility and stability in the innovating economy. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meadows D (2008) Thinking in system: a primer. Chelsea Green Publishing, VermontGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohring H (1972) Optimization and scale economies in urban bus transportation. Am Econ Rev 62(4):591–604Google Scholar
  26. Murphy KM, Shleifer A et al (1989) Industrialization and the big push. J Polit Econ 97(5):1003–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nelson RR, Winter SG (1982) An evolutionary theory of economic change. Belknap press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  28. North DC (1994) Economic performance through time. Am Econ Rev 84(3):359–368Google Scholar
  29. NRC (2010) Hidden costs of energy: unpriced consequences of energy production and use. Committee on health, environmental, and other external costs and benefits of energy production and consumption, National Research Council, United SatesGoogle Scholar
  30. Ortuzar JD, Willumsen L (2002) Modelling transport. Willey, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  31. Ostrom E (2005) Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  32. Parsons T, Shils E (2001) Toward a general theory of action: theoretical foundations for the social sciences. Transaction Pub, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  33. Rosenstein-Rodan P (1943) Problems of industrialization of Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Econ J 53(210/21):202–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schade W, Krail M (2006) Modeling and calibration of large scale system dynamics models: the case of the ASTRA model. In: Proceedings of the 24th international conference of the system dynamics society, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  35. Schade W, Rothengatter W (2005) Research issues in transport economics: dynamics, integration, and indirect effects. Appl Res Environ Econ 31:155–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schumpeter JA (1942) Socialism, capitalism and democracy. Harper and Bros, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Senge P (1990) The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. Currency Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Sterman JD (2000) Business dynamics: system thinking and modeling for a complex world. Irwin McGraw-Hill, BostonGoogle Scholar
  39. World Bank (1996) Sustainable transport: priorities for policy reform. International Bank of Reconstruction and Development, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surya Raj Acharya
    • 1
  • Shigeru Morichi
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Transport Policy Studies (ITPS)TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Policy Research Center, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS)TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations