When computer-assisted surgery was introduced in the early 1990s, the interest of orthopedic specialists was first focused on robotics. In 1995, when we started with computer navigation for the placement of pedicle screws at Ruhr University Bochum, no-one could imagine that this method would gain entry into orthopedic theaters. It involved timeconsuming planning and required preoperative computed tomography (CT); moreover, pairedpoint and surface matching during the operation was difficult for the surgeon (◘ Fig. 1.1).


Total Knee Arthroplasty Femoral Component Pedicle Screw Acetabular Component Tibial Component 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf Haaker
    • 1
  1. 1.St. Vincent HospitalBrakel

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