The Legislature and Military Reform in Indonesia

  • Jürgen Rüland
  • Maria-Gabriela Manea
Part of the Global Power Shift book series (GLOBAL)


The resignation of President Suharto on 23 May 1998 brought to an end more than four decades of authoritarian rule in Indonesia. Suharto was forced to step down by a student-led reform movement which was tacitly supported by the military leadership (O’Rourke, 2002). The catalyst for change was the Asian Financial Crisis with its disastrous consequences for the Indonesian economy and the livelihood of millions of Indonesians. The economic crisis and the concomitant political turbulences had quickly eroded the legitimacy of Suharto’s New Order regime and eventually led to its collapse.


Armed Force Civil Society Organization Reform Movement Asian Financial Crisis Constitutional Amendment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anggoro, K. (2007). The Department of Defense of the Republic of Indonesia: Ineffective civilian control. In B. Sukadis (Ed.), Almanac Indonesia 2007. Security sector reform (pp. 5–18). Jakarta: LESPERSSI/Centre for the Democratic Control of the Armed Forces.Google Scholar
  2. Araf, A. (2007). The TNI reform. In B. Sukadis (Ed.), Almanac Indonesia 2007. Security sector reform (pp. 19–30). Jakarta: LESPERSSI/DCAF.Google Scholar
  3. Artjana, I. G. (2005). The Indonesian military budget transparency and accountability. In M. Nurhasim (Ed.), Practices of military business: Experiences from Indonesia, Burma, Philippines and South Korea (pp. 149–164). Jakarta: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung/Ridep Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Beeson, M. (2008). Civil-military relations in Indonesia and the Philippines: Will the Thai coup prove contagious? Armed Forces and Society, 34(3), 474–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Born, H. (2006). Parliamentary oversight of defense in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand: Status and prospects. Dialogue and Cooperation, 3, 55–75.Google Scholar
  6. Bourchier, D. (1999). Positivism and romanticism in Indonesian legal thought. In T. Lindsey (Ed.), Indonesia: Law and society (pp. 186–196). Sydney: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  7. Budiardjo, M. S. (1956). The provisional parliament of Indonesia. Far Eastern Survey, 25(2), 17–23, February.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chrisnandi, Y. (2006). Kesaksian Para Jenderal. Sekitar Reformasi Internal dan Professionalisme TNI. Jakarta: Pustaka LP3ES Indonesia.Google Scholar
  9. Chrisnandi, Y. (2007). Post-Suharto civil-military relations in Indonesia. Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.Google Scholar
  10. Crouch, H. (2010). Political reform in Indonesia after Soeharto. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  11. Feith, H. (1955). Pemelihan Umum 1955 di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustakaan Populer Gramedia.Google Scholar
  12. Feith, H. (1962). The decline of constitutional democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Hadiprayitno, I. I. (2009). Defensive enforcement: Human rights in Indonesia. Human Rights Review, 11(3), 373–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hafidz, T. S. (2006). Fading away: The political role of the army in Indonesia’s transition to democracy, 1998–2001 (RSIS monograph, Vol. 8). Singapore: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.Google Scholar
  15. Honna, J. (2003). Military politics and democratization in Indonesia. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Human Rights Watch. (2006). Too high a price. The human rights cost of the Indonesian military’s economic activities (5th ed., Vol. 18). New York: Human Rights Watch, June.Google Scholar
  17. International Crisis Group (ICG). (2000). Indonesia: Keeping the military under control. Asia Report No. 9. Jakarta/Brussels: ICG, 5 December.Google Scholar
  18. International Crisis Group (ICG). (2001a). Indonesia: Next steps in military reform. Asia Report No. 24. Jakarta/Brussels: ICG, 11 October.Google Scholar
  19. International Crisis Group (ICG). (2001b). Communal violence in Indonesia: Lessons from Kalimantan. ICG Asia Report No.19. Jakarta/Brussels: ICG, 27 June.Google Scholar
  20. International Crisis Group (ICG). (2004). Indonesia: Rethinking internal security strategy. Asia Report No. 90. Jakarta/Brussels: ICG, 20 December.Google Scholar
  21. Legro, J. (2000). The transformation of policy ideas. American Journal of Political Science, 44(3), 419–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mietzner, M. (2006). The politics of military reform in post-Suharto Indonesia: Elite conflict, nationalism and institutional resistance. Washington, DC: East–West Center.Google Scholar
  23. Mietzner, M. (2008). Soldiers, parties and bureaucrats: Illicit fund-raising in contemporary Indonesia. Southeast Asia Research, 16(2), 225–255.Google Scholar
  24. Mietzner, M. (2009). Military politics, Islam, and the state in Indonesia. From turbulent transition to democratic consolidation. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  25. Mietzner, M. (2011c). Indonesia’s democratic stagnation: Anti-reformist elites and resilient civil society. Democratization.
  26. Nurhasim, M. (2005). Why the Military Do Business? An Introductory Note. In M. Nurhasim (Ed.), Practices of Military Business: Experiences from Indonesia, Burma, Philippines and South Korea (pp. 1–13). Jakarta: Monograph No. 10.Google Scholar
  27. O’Rourke, K. (2002). Reformasi. The struggle for power in post-Soeharto Indonesia. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  28. Propatria Institute. (2007). Management and control of Indonesia’s defense resources. Jakarta: Monograph No. 10, 10 November 2007.Google Scholar
  29. Rabasa, A., & Haseman, J. (2002). The military and democracy in Indonesia. Challenges, politics, and power. Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.Google Scholar
  30. Rahakundini Bakrie, C. (2009). Defending Indonesia. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Google Scholar
  31. Reeve, D. (1985). Golkar of Indonesia. An alternative to the party system. Singapore/Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ricklefs, M. (1993). A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1300. Houndmills: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. Rinakit, S. (2005). Indonesian military after the new order. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  34. Rüland, J. (2009). Deepening ASEAN cooperation through democratization? The Indonesian legislature and foreign policymaking. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 9(3), 373–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rüland, J., Jürgenmeyer, C., Nelson, M. H., & Ziegenhain, P. (2005). Parliaments and political change in Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  36. Said, S. (2006). Legitimizing military rule. Indonesian armed forces ideology: 1958–2000. Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan.Google Scholar
  37. Schuck, C. (2003). Der indonesische Demokratisierungsprozess. Politischer Neubeginn und historische Kontinuität. Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  38. Schneier, E. V. (2008). Evolving patterns of legislative oversight in Indonesia. In R. Stapenhurst, R. Pelizzo, D. Olson, & L. von Trapp (Eds.), Legislative oversight and budgeting: A world perspective (pp. 201–179). Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  39. Sebastian, L. C. (2006). Realpolitik ideology: Indonesia’s use of military force. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  40. Sherlock, S. (2003). Struggling to change: The Indonesian parliament in an Era of Reformasi. A report on the structure and operation of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR). Canberra: Australian National University/Centre for Democratic Institutions.Google Scholar
  41. Sherlock, S. (2007). Parliamentary indicators. Indonesia: House of Representatives/House of Regional Representatives. Accessed February 16, 2012, from
  42. Sherlock, S. (2009). SBY’s consensus cabinet – Lanjutkan? Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 45(3), 341–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sherlock, S. (2010). The parliament in Indonesia’s decade of democracy: People’s Forum or chamber of cronies? In E. Aspinall & M. Mietzner (Eds.), Problems of democratization in Indonesia. Elections, institutions and society (pp. 160–180). Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar
  44. Simanjuntak, M. (1989). Unsur Hegelian dalam pandangan negara integralistik. Depok: Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Hukum.Google Scholar
  45. Slater, D. (2004). Indonesia’s accountability trap: Party cartels and presidential power after democratic transition. Indonesia, 78(Oct), 61–92.Google Scholar
  46. Sukma, R. (2003). Democratic governance and security in Indonesia. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 4(2), 241–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sukma, R. (2006a). Kajian Kritis terhadap Undang-Undang No.3/2002 tentang Pertahanan Negara. In T. H. Prihatono (Ed.), Penataan Kerangka Regulasi Keamanan Nasional (pp. 17–32). Jakarta: ProPatria Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Sukma, R. (2006b). Reformasi Sektor Keamanan Indonesia. In B. Bandoro (Ed.), Perspektif Baru Keamanan Nasional (pp. 91–101). Jakarta: Centre for Strategic/International Studies.Google Scholar
  49. The Editors. (2003). Current data on the Indonesian military elite. Indonesia, 75(Apr), 9–61.Google Scholar
  50. Ufen, A. (2002). Herrschaftsfiguration und Demokratisierung in Indonesien (1965–2000) (p. 348). Hamburg: Mitteilungen des Instituts für Asienkunde Hamburg.Google Scholar
  51. Ufen, A. (2003). Die Verfassungsreformen in Indonesien. Verfassung und Recht in Übersee, 36(2), 206–227.Google Scholar
  52. Widjajanto, A., Kurniawan, Y., & Tirtawinata, A. (2008). Pengsawasan Komisi I DPR-RI di Bidang Pertahanan Negara (1999–2007). Jakarta: Pacivis/Universitas Indonesia/Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  53. Ziegenhain, P. (2008). The Indonesian parliament and democratization. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of FreiburgFreiburg im BreisgauGermany

Personalised recommendations