Interlingual Identifications and Assessment of Similarities Between L1, L2, and L3: Croatian Learners’ use of Modal Particles and Equivalent Modal Elements

  • Marijana Kresić
  • Tanja Gulan
Part of the Second Language Learning and Teaching book series (SLLT)


The presented study investigates interlingual identifications (Weinreich (Languages in Contact, 1953); Ringbom (The importance of cross-linguistic similarity in foreign language learning: comprehension, learning and production, 2007)) as a specific form of linguistic transfer in language learning. University students’ interlingual identifications were analyzed with respect to modal particles and equivalent modal elements in Croatian, English and German. The participants were advanced Croatian learners of German and English, 148 students of German language and literature at Croatian universities. The study also investigates the learners’ psychotypology, i.e. their assessments of the overall similarities between their L1, L2, and L3 with respect to English, German and Croatian, and their competence concerning the use of modal particles and equivalent modal elements. Further variables, such as “year of study” and “the learners’ L2” are related to the results of the experimental study. A central conclusion is that pointing learners to cross-linguistic equivalencies can be an essential learning strategy that turns interlingual identifications into a process facilitating learning. German and Croatian as particle-rich languages are contrasted with English which uses other elements for modalizing and contextualizing utterances.


Foreign Language Modal Element Language Learning Modal Particle Word Category 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Linguistics DepartmentUniversity of ZadarZadarCroatia

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