In the first part of this chapter we compute the one-loop partition function of the closed fermionic string. We will do this in light cone gauge. The possibility to assign to the world-sheet fermions periodic or anti-periodic boundary conditions leads to the concept of spin structures. The requirement of modular invariance is then shown to result in the GSO projection. We also generalize some of the results of Chap. 6 to the case of fermions. We then consider open superstrings, i.e. we extend the formalism of conformal field theories with boundaries to include free fermionic fields. This gives rise to D-branes in superstring theories. We also discuss non-oriented superstrings, which result form performing a quotient of the type IIB superstring by the world-sheet parity transformation. We show that one-loop diagrams are divergent unless D-branes are present in the model. This defines the type I superstring, whose construction we discuss in some detail.