Advertisement

Paleogeography and Tectono-Stratigraphy of Carboniferous-Permian and Triassic ‘Karoo-Like’ Sequences of the Congo Basin

  • Bastien Linol
  • Maarten J. de Wit
  • Erika Barton
  • Francois Guillocheau
  • Michiel C. J. de Wit
  • Jean-Paul Colin
Chapter
Part of the Regional Geology Reviews book series (RGR)

Abstract

The Congo Basin is a large Phanerozoic sedimentary basin with up to 3–6 km of Carboniferous to Triassic sequences, comparable to those of the Karoo Basins of southern Gondwana. Here, we present a substantially revised stratigraphy for the Congo Basin, based on new field observations, seismic and borehole data, together with paleontology and new geochronology. In the center of the basin, the deepest boreholes intercept 3 to 4 km thick successions of conglomerates and red sandstones that overlie carbonate rocks, which correlate to deformed upper Neoproterozoic (Pan African) platform sequences extending beyond the Congo Basin into the Pan African orogenic zones (e.g. the West Congolian Group). The overlying sequences are dated biostratigraphically to be Carboniferous-Permian (the Lukuga Group) and Triassic (the Haute Lueki Group) in age. A regional erosion surface separates these two groups, possibly related to late Paleozoic intracontinental deformation associated with the Mauritanian-Variscan and Cape-de la Ventana orogens flanking the northwestern and southern margins of Gondwana, respectively. This change in basin paleogeography is consistent with detrital zircons dated from these sequences that suggest the ca. 1.4 Ga Kibaran Belt along the eastern margin of the Congo Basin stopped acting as a major source during the early Mesozoic.

Keywords

Black Shale Detrital Zircon Angular Unconformity Congo Basin Deep Borehole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge funding through the Inkaba yeAfrica and !Khure Africa programs, supported by the DST/NRF of South Africa. We thank Anthony Tankard and an anonymous referee for critical reviews that improved the chapter. This is AEON contribution number 127 and Inkaba yeAfrica contribution number 97.

References

  1. Alvarez P, Maurin JC, Vicat J-P (1995) La Formation de l’Inkisi (Supergroupe Ouest-congolien) en Afrique centrale (Congo et Bas-Zaire): un delta d'âge Paléozoique comblant un bassin en extension. J Afr Earth Sci 20(2):119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Antunes MT, Maisey JG, Marques MM, Schaeffer B, Thomson KS (1990) Triassic fishes from the Cassange Depression (R.P. de Angola). Universitade de Lisboa, Ciencias da Terra, Numero Esp, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  3. Asselberghs A (1947) Caractères glaciaires des couches de base du Système du Karoo dans la vallée du Kwango. Bulletin de la Société Belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie, Tome LVI, fascicule 56(1–2):58–62Google Scholar
  4. Bangert B, Stollhofen H, Lorenz V, Armstrong R (1999) The geochronology and significance of ash-fall tuffs in the glaciogenic Carboniferous-Permian Dwyka Group of Namibia and South Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 29(1):33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biggin AJ, de Wit MJ, Langereis CG, Zegers TE, Voûte S, Dekkers MJ, Drost K (2011) Palaeomagnetism of Archean rocks of the Onverwacht Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt (southern Africa): evidence for a stable and potentially reversing geomagnetic field at ca. 3.5 Ga. Earth Planet Sci Lett 302(3–4):314–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bingen B, Jacobs J, Viola G, Henderson IHC, Skår Ø, Boyd R, Thomas RJ, Solli A, Key RM, Daudi EXF (2009) Geochronology of the Precambrian crust in the Mozambique belt in NE Mozambique, and implications for Gondwana assembly. Precambrian Res 170(3–4):231–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bose MN, Kar RK (1976) Palaeozoic sporae dispersae from Zaïre (Congo). XI: Assises glaciaires et periglaciaire from the Lukuga Valley. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in 8. Sciences Geologiques 77:1–19Google Scholar
  8. Bose MN, Kar RK (1978) Biostratigraphy of the Lukuga Group in Zaire. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in 8. Sciences Geologiques 82:97–114Google Scholar
  9. Boulouard C, Calandra F (1963) Etude palynologique de quelques sondages de la République du Congo (Congo ex-Belge). Unpublished report R/ST-no.7376, SNPA Direction exploration et production Pau, FranceGoogle Scholar
  10. Boutakoff N (1948) Les formations glaciaires et post-glaciaires fossilifères, d’âge permo-carbonifère (Karoo inférieur) de la region de Walikale (Kivu, Congo belge). Mémoire de l’Institut géologique. Université de Louvain, IX (II), 214ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Caen-Vachette M, Vialette Y, Bassot J-P, Vidal P (1988) Apport de la géochronologie isotopique à la connaissance de la géologie gabonaise. Chroniques de la recherche minière 491:35–54Google Scholar
  12. Cahen L (1954) Géologie du Congo Belge. Vaillant-Carmanne, Liège, p 577pGoogle Scholar
  13. Cahen L (1981) Précisions sur la stratigraphie et les corrélations du Goupe de la Haute-Lueki et des formations comparables (Triasique a Liasique? d’Afrique Centrale). Rapport annuel du Musée Royal d’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Départment de Géologie et de Minéralogie, pp 81–96Google Scholar
  14. Cahen L, Lepersonne J (1978) Synthèse des connaissances relatives au Groupe (anciennement Série) de la Lukuga (Permien du Zaïre). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo belge, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 82, pp 115–152Google Scholar
  15. Cahen L, Ferrand JJ, Haarsma MJF, Lepersonne J, Vebeek T (1959) Description du Sondage de Samba. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo belge, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 29, 210pGoogle Scholar
  16. Cahen L, Ferrand JJ, Haarsma MJF, Lepersonne J, Vebeek T (1960) Description du Sondage de Dekese. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo belge, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 34, 115pGoogle Scholar
  17. Cahen L, Snelling NJ, Delhal J, Vail J (1984) The geochronology and evolution of Africa. Clarendon, Oxford, p 512Google Scholar
  18. Catuneanu O, Wopfner H, Eriksson PG, Cairncross B, Rubidge BS, Smith RMH, Hancox PJ (2005) The Karoo basins of south-central Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 43(1–3):211–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colin J-P (1981) Paleontological study of the Esso/Texaco well Gilson-1, Zaire. Unpublished report EPR-E.WA19.81Google Scholar
  20. Colin J-P, Jan du Chêne J (1981) Paleontological study of the Esso/Texaco well Mbandaka-1, Zaire. Unpublished report EPR-E.WA15.81Google Scholar
  21. Crosby AG, Fishwick S, White N (2010) Structure and evolution of the intracratonic Congo Basin. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 11(6):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dabo M, Gueye M, Ngom PM, Diagne M (2008) Orogen-parallel tectonic transport: transpression and strain partitioning in the Mauritanides of NE Senegal. In: Ennih N, Liégeois J-P (eds) The boundaries of the West African Craton, vol 297. Geological Society, London, pp 483–497, Special PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  23. Daly MC, Lawrence SR, Kimun’a D, Binga M (1991) Late Paleozoic deformation in central Africa: a result of distant collision. Nature 350:605–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daly MC, Lawrence SR, Diemu-Tshiband K, Matouana B (1992) Tectonic evolution of the Cuvette Centrale, Zaire. J Geol Soc 149(4):539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. De Carvalho H (1981) Geologia de Angola. 4 folhas, escala 1: 1 000 000. Laboratório Nacional de investigação Cientifica Tropical, Junta de Investigaçãoes Cientifica do UltramarGoogle Scholar
  26. De Carvalho H, Tassinari C, Alves PM, Guimarães F, Simões MC (2000) Geochronological review of the Precambrian in western Angola: links with Brazil. J Afr Earth Sci 31(2):383–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Wit MJ, Jeffery M, Berg H, Nicolayson LO (1988) Geological Map of sectors of Gondwana reconstructed to their position ~150 Ma (with explanatory notes), scale 1: 1.000.000. American Association of Petroleum Geologist, TulsaGoogle Scholar
  28. De Wit MJ, De Brito Neves BB, Trouw RAJ, Pankhurst RJ (2008) Pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic region: “the ties that bind”. In: Pankurst RJ, Trouw RAJ, Brito Neves BB, de Wit MJ (eds) West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region, 294. Geological Society of London, London, pp 1–8, Special PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  29. De Wit MJ, Bowring S, Buchwaldt R, Dudas F, MacPhee D, Tagne-Kamga G, Dunn N, Salet AM, Nambatingar D (2014) Proterozoic crust of the Central Sahara Shield (in press)Google Scholar
  30. Defretin-Lefranc S (1967) Étude sur les phyllopodes du Bassin du Congo. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 56, 122pGoogle Scholar
  31. Delhal J (1991) Situation géochronologique 1990 du Precambrian du Sud-Kasai et de l’Ouest-Shaba. Rapport annuel du Musee Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Département de Géologie et de Minéralogie, pp 119–125Google Scholar
  32. Desthieux F (1995) Carte Géologique de la République du Congo au 1:1.000.000. Geological Survey of South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  33. Dos Santos EJ, Schmus WRV, Kozuch M, Neves BBDB (2010) The Cariris Velhos tectonic event in Northeast Brazil. J S Am Earth Sci 29(1):61–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Esso-Zaire SARL (1981a) Geological completion report: Gilson-1. Unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  35. Esso-Zaire SARL (1981b) Geological completion report: Mbandaka-1. Unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  36. Evrard P (1960) Sismique. Annales du Musée Royal du Congo belge, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 33, 87pGoogle Scholar
  37. Eyles N, Eyles CH (1992) Glacial Depositional Systems. In: Walker RG, James NP (eds) Facies models: response to sea level change. Ontario, Geological Association of Canada, pp 73–100Google Scholar
  38. Fedo CM, Sircombe KN, Rainbird RH (2003) Detrital zircon analysis of the sedimentary record. Rev Mineral Geochem 53(1):277–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fourmarier P (1914) Le basin charbonnier d’âge permo-triassique de la Lukuga. Etude géologique de la region de la Lukuga et de la Lubumba au voisinage du lac Tanganyika. Ann Soc Geol Belg 41(C):77–227Google Scholar
  40. Frimmel H, Tack L, Basei M, Nutman A, Boven A (2006) Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic West Congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Afr Earth Sci 46(3):221–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gonzalez F, Moreno C, Playford G (2011) The Gondwana-Laurussia convergence process: evidence from the Middle Mississipian (Visean) palynostratigraphic record. Geol Mag 148(2):317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grekoff N (1960) Ostracodes du Bassin du Congo. II. Crétacé. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 35, 70pGoogle Scholar
  43. Isbell JL, Cole DI, Catuneanu O (2008) Carboniferous-Permian glaciation in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa: Stratigraphy, depositional controls, and glacial dynamics. In: Fielding CR, Frank TD, Isbell JL (eds) Resolving the late paleozoic ice age in time and space. Geological Society of America Special Paper, vol 441, pp 71–82Google Scholar
  44. Jamal DL, Zartman RE, De Wit MJ (1999) U – Th – Pb single zircon dates from the Lurio Belt, Northern Mozambique: Kibaran and Pan-African orogenic events highlighted. J Afr Earth Sci 111:32Google Scholar
  45. Jamotte A (1932) Contribution à l’étude géologique du basin charbonnier de la Lukuga. Annales du Service des Mines. Comité Spécial du Katanga 2:1–75Google Scholar
  46. Jelsma HA, Perrit SH, Amstrong R, Ferreira HF (2011) Shrimp U-Pb zircon geochronology of basement rocks of the Angolan Shield, western Angola. Abstract, 23rd CAG, Johannesburg, 8th–14th JanGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson MR, Van Vuuren CJ, Hegenberger WF, Key R, Shoko U (1996) The Stratigraphy of the Karoo Supergroup in southern Africa: an overview. J Afr Earth Sci 23(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson MR, Van Vuuren CJ, Visser JNJ, Cole DI, De Villiers Wickens H, Christie ADM, Roberts DL, Brandl G (2006) Sedimentary rocks of the Karoo Supergroup. In: Johnson MR, Anhaeusser CR, Thomas RJ (eds) The geology of South Africa. Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, pp 461–499Google Scholar
  49. Jones L, Mathieu PL, Strenger H (1959) Magnétisme. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique central, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 27, 30pGoogle Scholar
  50. Kadima E, Delvaux D, Sebagenzi SN, Tack L, Kabeya SM (2011) Structure and geological history of the Congo Basin: an integrated interpretation of gravity, magnetic and reflection seismic data. Basin Res 23(5):499–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kasanzu C (2014) Dating the unroofing and cooling histories of the Archean Tanzanian Craton, Eastern Africa: using a combination of apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronometric techniques. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  52. Kokonyangi J, Armstrong R, Kampunzu A, Yoshida M, Okudaira T (2004) U-Pb zircon geochronology and petrology of granitoids from Mitwaba (Katanga, Congo): implications for the evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Kibaran belt. Precambrian Res 132(1–2):79–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kreuser T (1984) Karroo Basins in Tanzania. In: Klerkx J, Michot J (eds) African geology. Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren, pp 231–246Google Scholar
  54. Lawrence SR, Makazu MM (1988) Zaire’s central basin: prospectivity outlook. Oil Gas J 86(38):105–108Google Scholar
  55. Lenoir JL, Liegeois J-P, Theunissen K, Klerkx J (1995) The Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian shear belt in Tanzania: geochronology and structure. J Afr Earth Sci 19(3):169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lepersonne J (1951) Les subdivisions du système du Karoo au Kwango (Congo belge). Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, LXXIV, pp 123–138Google Scholar
  57. Lepersonne J (1974) Carte géologique du Zaïre au 1: 2.000.000 et notice explicative. Kinshasa, République du Zaïre: Direction de la Géologie/Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique)Google Scholar
  58. Lepersonne J (1978) Structure géologique du bassin interieur du Zaïre. Académie royale des Sciences d’outre-Mer. Classe des Sciences Naturelles et Médicales, Bruxelles (Belgique), XX-2, 27pGoogle Scholar
  59. Lerouge C, Cocherie A, Toteu SF, Penaye J, Milési J-P, Tchameni R, Nsifa EN, Mark Fanning C, Deloule E (2006) Shrimp U-Pb zircon age evidence for Paleoproterozoic sedimentation and 2.05Ga syntectonic plutonism in the Nyong Group, South-Western Cameroon: consequences for the Eburnean-Transamazonian belt of NE Brazil and Central Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 44(4–5):413–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Link K, Koehn D, Barth MG, Aanyu K, Foley SF (2010) Continuous cratonic crust between the Congo and Tanzania blocks in western Uganda. Int J Earth Sci (Geologische Rundschau) 99:1559–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Linol B (2013) Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Congo and Kalahari Basins of south-central Africa and their evolution during the formation and break-up of West Gondwana. PhD thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, 375pGoogle Scholar
  62. Linol B, de Wit MJ, Barton E, de Wit MJC, Guillocheau (2014) U-Pb detrital zircons dates and source provenance analysis of Phanerozoic sequences of the Congo Basin, Central Gondwana (accepted at Gondwana Research)Google Scholar
  63. Lombard AL (1961) La série de la Haute Lueki (partie orientale de la cuvette congolaise). Bulletin de la Société belge de Géologie, de Paléontologie et d’Hydrologie 70:65–72Google Scholar
  64. Ludwig KR (2003) Isoplot/version 3.0: A geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special Publication, 4, 71pGoogle Scholar
  65. Maheshwari H, Bose MN, Kumaran KP (1977) Mesozoic sporae dispersae from Zaire. II: The Loia and Bokungu Groups in the Samba borehole. III: Some miospores from the Stanleyville Group. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Série in-8, Sciences géologiques, 80, 60pGoogle Scholar
  66. Master S, Rainaud C, Armstrong R, Phillips D, Robb L (2005) Provenance ages of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup (Central African Copperbelt), with implications for basin evolution. J Afr Earth Sci 42(1–5):41–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Milani EJ, de Wit MJ (2008) Correlations between the classic Paraná and Cape Karoo sequences of South America and southern Africa and their basin infills flanking the Gondwanides: du Toit revisited. In: Pankurst RJ, Trouw RAJ, Brito Neves BB, de Wit MJ (eds) West Gondwana: Pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region, vol 294. Geological Society of London, London, pp 319–342, Special PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  68. Modie BN, Le Hérissé A (2009) Late Palaeozoic palynomorph assemblages from the Karoo Supergroup and their potential for biostratigraphic correlation, Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana. Czech Repub Geol Surv Bull 84(2):337–358Google Scholar
  69. Montañez IP, Poulsen CJ (2013) The Late Paleozoic Ice Age: an evolving paradigm. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 41:629–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moore TL, Scotese CR (2013) Ancient Earth: assembly of Pangea, Vers. 1.0, iOS Mobile ApplicationGoogle Scholar
  71. Mounguengui MM, Lang J, Guiraud M, Jocktane O (2002) Sedimentary dynamics and structural geology of pre-rift deposits of the interior basin of Gabon. J Afr Earth Sci 35(2):315–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nagudi B, Koeberl C, Kurat G (2003) Petrography and geochemistry of the Singo granite, Uganda, and implications for its origin. J Afr Earth Sci 36(1–2):73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Newton AR, Shone RW, Booth PWK (2006) The Cape Fold Belt. In: Johnson MR, Anhaeusser CR, Thomas RJ (eds) The geology of South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa, Council for Geoscience, pp 521–530Google Scholar
  74. Opdyke ND, Mushayandebvu M, de Wit MJ (2001) A new palaeomagnetic pole for the Dwyka System and correlative sediments in sub-Saharan Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 33(1):143–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Pedrosa-Soares AC, Alkmim FF, Tack L, Noce CM, Babinski M, Silva LC, Martins-Neto MA (2008) Similarities and differences between the Brazilian and African counterparts of the Neoproterozoic Araçuaí-West Congo orogen. Geol Soc Lond, Spec Publ 294(1):153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Poidevin JL (1985) Le Proterozoic supérieur de la Républic Centrafricaine. Annales du Musée Royal de l’Afrique centrale, Tervuren (Belgique), Serie in-8, Sciences Geologiques, 91, 75pGoogle Scholar
  77. Rakotosolofo NA, Torsvik TH, Ashwal LD, Eide EA, de Wit MJ (1999) The Karoo Supergroup revisited and Madagascar-Africa fits. J Afr Earth Sci 29(1):135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rocha-Campos AC (1976) Direction of movement of late Paleozoic glaciers in Angola (western Africa). Instituto de Geociêcias, USP, BoletimIG 7:39–44Google Scholar
  79. Rolin P (1995) Carte tectonique de la République Centrafricaine au 1:1.500.000. BRGMGoogle Scholar
  80. Sachse VF, Delvaux D, Littke R (2012) Petrological and geochemical investigations of potential source rocks of the central Congo Basin, DRC. Am Assoc Pet Geol Bull 96(2):245–275Google Scholar
  81. Scotese CR (2014) PaleoAtlas for ArcGIS, vol 4. Late Permian, PALEOMAP Project, Evanston, ILGoogle Scholar
  82. Streel MT, Theron JN (1999) The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in South Africa and the age of the earliest episode of the Dwyka glaciation: New palynological result. Episodes 22(1):41–44Google Scholar
  83. Tack L, Wingate MTD, Lie J (2001) Early Neoproterozoic magmatism (1000-910 Ma) of the Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups (Bas-Congo): onset of Rodinia rifting at the western edge of the Congo craton. Precambrian Res 110:277–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tack L, Wingate MTD, De Waele B, Meert J, Belousova E, Griffin B, Tahon a, Fernandez-Alonso M (2010) The 1375 Ma “Kibaran event” in Central Africa: Prominent emplacement of bimodal magmatism under extensional regime. Precambrian Res 180(1–2):63–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tait J, Delpomdor F, Preat A, Tack L, Straathof G, Nkula VK (2011) Neoproterozoic sequences of the West Congo and Lindi/Ubangi Supergroups in the Congo Craton, Central Africa. In: Arnaud E, Halverson GP, Shields-Zhou G (eds) The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Geological Society of London, Memoirs, 36, pp 185–194Google Scholar
  86. Toteu SF, Van Schmus WR, Penaye J, Michard A (2001) New U-Pb and Sm-Nd data from north-central Cameroon and its bearing on the pre-Pan African history of central Africa. Precambrian Res 108(1–2):45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Toteu SF, Fouateu RY, Penaye J, Tchakounte J, Mouangue ACS, Van Schmus WR, Deloule E, Stendal H (2006) U-Pb dating of plutonic rocks involved in the nappe tectonic in southern Cameroon: consequence for the Pan-African orogenic evolution of the central African fold belt. J Afr Earth Sci 44(4–5):479–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Trouw RA, de Wit MJ (1999) Relation between the Gondwanide Orogen and contemporaneous intracratonic deformation. J Afr Earth Sci 28(1):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Veevers JJ, Cole DI, Cohan EJ (1994) Southern Africa: Karoo Basin and Cape Fold Belt. In: Veevers JJ, Powell C.McA (eds) Permian-Triassic Pangean Basins and fold belts along the Panthalassan margin of Gondwanaland. Geological Society of America, Colorado, Memoir, 184, pp 223–280Google Scholar
  90. Visser JNJ (1995) Post-glacial Permian stratigraphy and geography of southern and central Africa: boundary conditions for climatic modelling. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 118(3–4):213–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wopfner H, Diekmann B (1996) The Late Palaeozoic Idusi Formation of southwest Tanzania: a record of change from glacial to postglacial conditions. J Afr Earth Sci 22(4):575–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bastien Linol
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maarten J. de Wit
    • 1
  • Erika Barton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Francois Guillocheau
    • 3
  • Michiel C. J. de Wit
    • 4
  • Jean-Paul Colin
  1. 1.AEON-ESSRI (African Earth Observatory Network – Earth Stewardship Science Research Institute), Nelson Mandela Metropolitan UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  2. 2.Geological Sciences, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan UniversityPort ElizabethSouth Africa
  3. 3.Géosciences-Rennes, UMR 6118 Université de Rennes 1 – CNRS, OSUR, Université de Rennes 1Rennes CedexFrance
  4. 4.Delrand Resources Pty LtdTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations