Genetic Methods of HLA Typing

  • Jacek Nowak
  • Renata Mika-Witkowska
  • Elżbieta Graczyk-Pol
Part of the Principles and Practice book series (PRINCIPLES)


Several molecular techniques have been adapted for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing with their advantages and drawbacks, which greatly improved the feasibility and precision of HLA typing as compared to previously used methods. Molecular techniques enabled more accurate analyses of the influence of HLA disparities on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant outcome. The principles of the new 2010 HLA nomenclature, the HLA genotype assignment, both with accurate and ambiguous results generated using most common techniques, have been presented in this chapter. Basic features, such as throughput and resolution of the methods, have been outlined. Detailed exemplary protocols of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedures of HLA-typing using sequence specific primer (SSP), sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSO), and sequencing-based typing (SBT) techniques have been described. There is currently an increasing interest in the typing of different nonHLA genetic polymorphisms that are involved in transplantation immunity pathways. Among them, the protocols of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) and minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) PCR-SSP typing have been presented in detail.


Human Leukocyte Antigen Sequence Specific Primer Human Leukocyte Antigen Allele Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing Human Leukocyte Antigen Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This chapter was partly supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant No. N N402 351138.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacek Nowak
    • 1
  • Renata Mika-Witkowska
    • 1
  • Elżbieta Graczyk-Pol
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ImmunogeneticsInstitute of Hematology and Transfusion MedicineWarsawPoland

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