The Evolution of Cyclic Activity of the Sun in the Context of Physical Processes on Late-Type Stars

Conference paper
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings book series (ASSSP, volume 30)

Abstract

Features of the solar cycle in the context of stellar activity are investigated. We discovered reliably differential rotation in chromospheres of some stars and presented the first stellar butterfly diagrams. These stars possess less regular variability and do not demonstrate excellent cycles. This is the first evidence for differences of the solar activity from processes on stars with Excellent cycles. We compare indices of the chromospheric activity of the Sun with that for above 1,300 northern and southern stars whose activity revealed during planet search programs. We argue the matter pro and con for two possible ways of an evolution of activity from a contraction phase to 10Gyrs. When a young star brakes down, the chromospheric and the coronal activity weaken synchronously. The solar-like activity of the most main sequence F and early G stars does evolve by this path. The activity of the later stars from G5 to K7 after a definite level evolves by another way: the chromospheric activity diminishes up to the solar level, while coronae stay stronger than the solar one. Two possible paths of the evolution of activity are associated with the different depth of the convective zone of these stars. Physically this means that the relative input of small- and large-scale of magnetic fields differs for F–G and K stars.

Keywords

Solar Cycle Convective Zone Differential Rotation Cyclic Activity Local Magnetic Field 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Author is grateful to M.A. Livshits and D.D. Sokoloff for fruitful discussions and Euro-Asian Astronomical Society for partial financial support of participation in JENAM-2011. This work is supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 09-02-01010) and the Program of State Support for Leading Scientific Schools of the Russian Federation (grant NSh-7179.2010.2).

References

  1. 1.
    S. Messina, S. Desidera, A. C. Lanzafame, et al. RACE-OC project: rotation and variability in the ε Chamaeleontis, Octans, and Argus stellar associations. Astron. Astrophys. 532, 10 (2011).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Skumanich. Time Scales for CA II Emission Decay, Rotational Braking, and Lithium Depletion. Astrophys. J. 171, 565–567 (1972).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Guedel, E. F. Guinan, and S. L. Skinner. The X-Ray Sun in Time: A Study of the Long-Term Evolution of Coronae of Solar-Type Stars. Astrophys. J. 483, 947–960 (1997).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. E. DeWarf, K. M. Datin, and E. F. Guinan. X-ray, FUV, and UV Observations of α Centauri B: Determination of Long-term Magnetic Activity Cycle and Rotation Period. Astrophys. J. 722, 343–357 (2010).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Mamajek and L. A. Hillenbrand. Improved Age Estimation for Solar-Type Dwarfs Using Activity-Rotation Diagnostics. Astrophys. J.687, 1264–1293 (2008).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. W. Noyes, L. W. Hartmann, S. L. Baliunas, et al.Rotation, convection, and magnetic activity in lower main-sequence stars. Astrophys. J. 279, 763–777 (1984).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. T.Wright, G. W. Marcy, R. P. Butler, S. S. Vogt. Chromospheric Ca II Emission in Nearby F, G, K, and M Stars, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 152, 261–295 (2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Arriagada. Chromospheric Activity of Southern Stars from the Magellan Planet Search Program. Astrophys. J. 734, 70 (2011).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E.A. Bruevich and A. A. Isaeva. Comparative analysis of long-term variations of chromospheric and photospheric radiation for the Sun and other solar-like stars. in: Proceedings of the All-Russia Annual Conference on Solar Physics, Astronomy Year– Solar and Solar-Earth Physics 2009, (Glavn. Astron. Observ. Ross. Akad. Nauk, St.-Peterburg, 2009), 81–82 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. H. M. M. Schmitt and C. Liefke, NEXXUS: A comprehensive ROSAT survey of coronal X-ray emission among nearby solar-like stars. Astron. Astrophys. 417, 651–665 (2004).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Huensch, J. H. M. M. Schmitt, M. F. Sterzik, and W. Voges. The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of the nearby stars. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 135, 319–338 (1999).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Poppenhaeger, J. Robrade, and J. H. M. M. Schmitt. Coronal properties of planet-bearing stars. Astron. Astrophys. 515, 98 (2010).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Poppenhaeger, J. Robrade, and J. H. M. M. Schmitt. Coronal properties of planet-bearing stars. Astron. Astrophys. 529, 1 (2011).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. L. Canto Martins, M. L. das Chagas, S. Alves, et al. Chromospheric activity of stars with planets. Astron. Astrophys. 530, 73 (2011).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. M. Katsova and M. A. Livshits. The evolution of solar-like activity of low-mass stars. Astron. Rep. 55, 1123–1131 (2011).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. M. Katsova and M. A. Livshits. The activity of late-type stars: the Sun among stars with cyclic activity. Astron. Rep. 50, 579–587 (2006).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. M. Katsova, Vl. V. Bruevich, and M. A. Livshits. Patterns of activity in stars with cycles becoming established. Astron. Rep. 51, 675–686 (2007).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu. A. Nagovitsyn, in: Activity Cycles on the Sun and Stars, Collected Vol. (St.-Petersburg, 2009), 99–106 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. M. Katsova, M. A. Livshits, W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas, D.D Sokoloff. Differential rotation of some HK-Project stars and the butterfly diagrams. New Astronomy 15, 274–281 (2010).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.G. Beck. A comparison of differential rotation measurements (Invited Review) Solar Phys. 191, 47–70 (2000).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O. G. Badalyan, V. N. Obridko, and Yu. Sykora. Cyclic variations in the differential rotation of the solar corona. Astron. Rep. 50, 312–324 (2006).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. M. Katsova, I. M. Livshits, and Yu. Sykora. The rotation of the Sun as a star from the green- line emission of the entire corona. Astron. Rep. 53, 343–354 (2009).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    I. M. Livshits and V. N. Obridko. Variations of the dipole magnetic moment of the sun during the solar activity cycle. Astron. Rep. 50, 926–935 (2006).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T.V. Mishenina, C. Soubiran, V. V. Kovtyukh, M. M. Katsova, and M. A. Livshits. Activity and the Li abundances in the FGK dwarfs. Astron. Astrophys. in press (2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R. Martinez-Arnaiz, J. Lopez-Santiago, I. Crespo-Chacon, and D. Montes. Effect of magnetic activity saturation in chromospheric flux-flux relationship. Mon. Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 414, 2629–2641 (2011).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sternberg State Astronomical InstituteMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations