The Situation in Europe

  • Alexander C. Tsigkas
Part of the Springer Texts in Business and Economics book series (STBE)


Ever since engineer Taiichi Ohno designed the famous Toyota Production System a great deal of time has elapsed for Europe, much later than Japan and the US, to discover that there is something to gain if similar techniques were implemented to European industry. Under the pressure of competition, companies are seeking ways to reduce operation costs in order to stay alive in a continuously globalized and competitive economy. The Lean approach has been adopted slowly but steadily by an increasing number of companies in Europe, nowadays at an accelerating pace, although some time ago many companies, some of which no longer exist, rejected the Lean approach as an approach that does not fit European culture. What has changed today for companies to, despite the cultural differences, embrace the Lean way?


Lean Production Competitive Economy Accelerate Pace European Industry Extended Enterprise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aberdeen Group (2006) The Lean Benchmark Report: closing the reality gap;
  2. Ohno T (1988) Toyota production system: beyond large scale production. Productivity Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Tsigkas A, Freund R (2008) The Lea®n extended enterprise, the art of continuously achieving benefits through value adding communities. In: Koch T (ed) Lean business and beyond. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander C. Tsigkas
    • 1
  1. 1.Production Engineering and ManagementDemocritus University of ThraceXanthiGreece

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