Identical Particles, Bosons and Fermions

  • Pedro Pereyra Padilla
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


The distiguishability or not of quantum processes under an interchange operator \({\hat{P}}_{ij}\) of two particles and the interference phenomena of the wave function amplitudes, are fundamental issues of quantum theory. We will see that, for systems of identical particles, the invariance of the Hamiltonian under the action of the operator \({\hat{P}}_{ij}\) implies symmetry conditions on the wave functions that are symmetric under \({\hat{P}}_{ij}\) when it describes integer-spin particles (bosons), and antisymmetric, when it describes half-integer spin particles (fermions).


Helium Atom Spin Projection Probability Amplitude Identical Particle Occupation Probability 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Física Teórica y Materia CondensadaUniversidad Autónoma MetropolitanaMéxicoMexico

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