Arab Perceptions of Global Arms Control Approaches

  • Gamal M. Selim
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace book series (BRIEFSSECUR, volume 4)


Scholars of international politics have long recognized that human behaviour is largely shaped by how reality is perceived and evaluated, and that comprehending decision-makers’ cognition of reality is crucial for understanding their behaviour (Jervis 1976). In fact, the cognitive approach to international politics is based on these premises. The difference between various cognitive schools lies in their identification of the locus of the most crucial cognitive variables, such as perceptions, beliefs, images, and values. In the meantime, they all share the assumption that national leaders make decisions within the constraints of ‘bounded rationality’. These constraints are related to the external situation as well as the capacities of the decision-maker. In this respect, one can distinguish between (i) external boundaries, which include missing, erroneous, or unknowable information about external crises, and (ii) internal boundaries to rational decision-making, which are the result of policymakers’ limited information processing capacity when studying exceptionally complex issues. Instead of searching all information for the best outcome, policymakers usually select an alternative that is acceptable and compatible with their existing views.


Middle East United Arab Emirate Nuclear Weapon Arab Country Arab World 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdel-Salam, M. (1992). The global control of middle eastern armament. Journal of International Politics (Cairo),103 October (in Arabic). Google Scholar
  2. Al-Dessouki, M. (1996). The control of armament in the Middle East. Strategic Paper Series (Cairo), 42 (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  3. Boudreaux, R., & Daragahi, B. (2007). Israel lifts veil on air strike against Syria. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2007, from
  4. Butcher, T. (2007). Syria accuses Israeli warplanes of entering territory. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved September 9, 2007, from
  5. Chirac, J. (1992). Proliferation, non-proliferation, deterrence. Politique Internationale, 56 (Summer).Google Scholar
  6. Cooper, H., & Mazzetti, M. (2007). An Israeli strike on syria kindles debate in the U.S. New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from
  7. Dean, J. (1988). Berlin in a divided Germany: An evolving international regime. In A. L. George, P. J. Farley, & A. Dallin (Eds.), U.S.-Soviet Security Cooperation: Achievements, failures, lessons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Diyab, M. (1995). Arms control and Arab–Israeli settlement: A Syrian perspective. In M. Diyab (Ed.), Arms control and security in the Middle East: In search for common ground. Cairo: Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  9. El-Shazly, F. (2000). The development of the Euro-Mediterranean charter for peace and stability. In M. Ortega (Ed.), The future of the Euro-Mediterranean security dialogue. Paris: Institute for Security Studies-Western European Union.Google Scholar
  10. Farley, P. J. (1988). Strategic arms control. In A. L. George, P. J. Farley, & A. Dallin (Eds.), U.S.-Soviet Security Cooperation: Achievements, failures, lessons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hanrieder, W. F., & Auton, G. P. (1980). The foreign policies of West Germany, France, and Britain. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Jervis, Robert (1976). Perception and Misperception in International Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  13. Jones, P. (2003, November). Negotiating regional security and arms control in the Middle East: The ACRS experience and beyond. Survival, 14, 31.Google Scholar
  14. Karem, M. (1995). The Middle East: Existing status of regional efforts and arrangements, In T. A. Couloumbis, & T. P. Dokos (Eds.), Arms control & security in the Middle East & the CIS republics. Athens: Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy.Google Scholar
  15. Klein, Y. (1995). Russia and a conventional arms: Non-proliferation regime in the middle east. In E. Inbar & S. Sandler (Eds.), Middle Eastern security: Prospects for an arms control regime. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  16. Kristensen, Hans M. & Handler, Joshua (1995). Nuclear Counterproliferation in the Middle East. Middle East Report, 25 (November/December); available at:
  17. Kull, Steven (2007). Negative Attitudes toward the United States in the Muslim World: Do They Matter?. World Public Opinion, 17 (May); available at:
  18. Larrabee, S. F., Green, J., Lesser, I. O., & Zanini, M. (1998). NATO’s Mediterranean initiative: Policy issues and dynamics. Washington, DC: Rand.Google Scholar
  19. Maresca, J. J. (1988). Helsinki accords 1975. In A. L. George, P. J. Farley, & A. Dallin (Eds.), U.S.–Soviet Security Cooperation: Achievements, failures, lessons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Mekheimar, O. F. (2002). Common challenges to the levant: Cooperative security in the Middle East after peace. Rome: NATO Defense College.Google Scholar
  21. Mintz, Alex and DeRouen Jr., Karl (2010). Understanding Foreign Policy Decision Making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  22. Moubayed, S. (2007, September 20–26). With friends like these: America and Israel spin propaganda circles around the Arabs. Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo).Google Scholar
  23. Nafaa, H. (2004, January 1–7). Dubious Courage and Doddering Wisdom. Al-Ahram Weekly (Cairo).Google Scholar
  24. Navias, M. S. (1994). Arms trade and arms control in the Middle East and North Africa since operation desert storm. In The Middle East and North Africa. London: Europa Publication.Google Scholar
  25. Ortmayer, L. L. (1975). Conflict, compromise, and conciliation: West German-Polish normalization 1966–1976. Warsaw: University of Denver.Google Scholar
  26. Pande, S. (1998, December). Nuclear weapon-free zone in the Middle East. Strategic Analysis, XXII, 9.Google Scholar
  27. Said, A. M. (1995). Conventional arms control in the Middle East. Strategic Papers Series (Cairo), 29 (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  28. Selim, Gamal M. (2011). Perceptions of Hard Security Issues in the Arab World. In Hans Günter Brauch et al., (Eds.), Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security – Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks. Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer. Google Scholar
  29. Selim, M. E.-S. (2000). Towards a new WMD agenda in the Euro-Mediterranean partnership: An Arab perspective. In A. Vasconcelos, & G. Joffe (Eds.), The Barcelona process: Building a Euro-Mediterranean regional community. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  30. Selim, M. (2008, April 20). Revealing the veiled reality of arab nuclear programs. Al-Arabi (Cairo).Google Scholar
  31. Shehata, D., & Wahid, M. (2011). The engines of change in the Arab world. Journal of International Politics (Cairo), 184 (April), 10–17 (in Arabic).Google Scholar
  32. Spear, J. (1994, December). On the desirability and feasibility of arms transfer regime formation. Contemporary Security Policy, 15, 3.Google Scholar
  33. Steinberg, G. M. (1994). Middle east arms control and regional security. Survival, 36,1 (Spring).Google Scholar
  34. Urwin, D. W. (1997). A political history of Western Europe since 1945. London: Longman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political SciencePort Said UniversityPort SaidEgypt

Personalised recommendations