Testing Thermal Performance of Surgical Neutral Electrodes Without Volunteers

  • N. H. Nessler
  • M. Salchner
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 39)


Part I describes the design and development as well as the construction of the “electronic skin”, by means of which the electrical and thermal properties of the patient’s skin under the electrosurgical neutral electrode (NE) are simulated. For the temperature test of NEs according to the relevant Standard IEC 60601-2-2, the swaroTEST device with ists “electronic skin” can be used to replace the very laborious volunteer experiments as requested in the Standard.

Part II evaluates a measurement series on volunteers, that were made using a thermo camera, as is requested in the Standard for the calibration of the surrogat medium and the values are compared with corresponding measurements at the swaro- TEST device: The result is that the temperature values of the swaroTEST correspond to the worst case, that means the highest temperature values of the volunteer measurements. This proves that the swaroTEST is suited and appropriate to replace the volunteer experiments.

Part III describes the simulation of a Safety System, CQM (Contact Quality Monitoring), also with the “electronic skin”. CQM systems recognize the detachment of the NE from the skin (danger of burns!) and initiate the alarm. In order to check the efficacy of such systems the Standard requests for this case, too, volunteer experiemnts, which can now as well be replaced by measurements with the swaroTEST device.


Skin Layer Measuring Table Volunteer Experiment Laborious Volunteer Electronic Simulation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nessler Medizintechnik GmbHInnsbruckAustria

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