A simple method for EPID-based in vivo dosimetry for radiotherapy treatments of head-and-neck cancers
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This study used a homogeneous water-equivalent model of an electronic portal imaging device (EPID), contoured as a structure in a radiotherapy treatment plan, to produce reference dose images for comparison with in vivo EPID dosimetry images. Head and neck treatments were chosen as the focus of this study, due to the heterogeneous anatomies involved and the consequent difficulty of rapidly obtaining reliable reference dose images by other means. A phantom approximating the size and heterogeneity of a typical neck, with a maximum radiological thickness of 8.5 cm, was constructed for use in this study. This phantom was CT scanned and a simple treatment including five square test fields and one off-axis IMRT field was planned. In order to allow the treatment planning system to calculate dose in a model EPID positioned a distance downstream from the phantom to achieve a source-to-detector distance (SDD) of 150 cm, the CT images were padded with air and the phantom’s “body” contour was extended to encompass the EPID contour. Comparison of dose images obtained from treatment planning calculations and experimental irradiations showed good agreement, with more than 90% of points in all fields passing a gamma evaluation, at γ (3%, 3mm )Similar agreement was achieved when the phantom was over-written with air in the treatment plan and removed from the experimental beam, suggesting that water EPID model at 150 cm SDD is capable of providing accurate reference images for comparison with clinical IMRT treatment images, for patient anatomies with radiological thicknesses ranging from 0 up to approximately 9 cm. This methodology therefore has the potential to be used for in vivo dosimetry during treatments to tissues in the neck as well as the oral and nasal cavities, in the head-and-neck region.
KeywordsRadiation therapy portal dosimetry transit dosimetry EPID
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