Indriya: A Low-Cost, 3D Wireless Sensor Network Testbed
This paper presents Indriya, a large-scale, low-cost wireless sensor network testbed deployed at the National University of Singapore. Indriya uses TelosB devices and it is built on an active-USB infrastructure. The infrastructure acts as a remote programming back-channel and it also supplies electric power to sensor devices. Indriya is designed to reduce the costs of both deployment and maintenance of a large-scale testbed. Indriya has been in use by over 100 users with its maintenance incurring less than US$500 for almost 2 years of its usage.
In the second part of this paper, we provide an extensive study of all 16 channels of IEEE 802.15.4 supported by CC2420 devices constituting Indriya. The objective is to understand performance differences and correlations that may exist among different channels. The measurement results are of interest to the WSN community as they may be useful in designing WSN routing and MAC protocols that exploit channel-diversity.
KeywordsSensor Node Wireless Sensor Network Link Quality Indicator Packet Reception Ratio Unicast Packet
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Doddavenkatappa, M., Chan, M.C., Ananda, A. L.: Indriya: A Wireless Sensor Network Testbed at NUS, http://indriya.comp.nus.edu.sg
- 2.Omprakash, G., Rodrigo, F., Kyle, J., David, M., Philip, L.: Collection Tree Protocol. In: Proceedings of SenSys 2009 (November 2009)Google Scholar
- 3.Xing, G., et al.: Multi-channel Interference Measurement and Modeling in Low-Power Wireless Networks. In: Proceedings of 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (December 2009)Google Scholar
- 4.Srinivasan, K., Maria, A., Saatvik, A., Philip, L.: The β-factor: Measuring Wireless Link Burstiness. In: Proceedings of ACM SenSys (November 2008)Google Scholar
- 5.Wu, Y., et al.: Realistic and Efficient Multi-Channel Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: Proceedings of INFOCOM 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
- 6.Doherty, L., Lindsay, W., Simon, J.: Channel-Specific Wireless Sensor Network Path Analysis. In: Proceedings of Computer Communications and Networks (2007)Google Scholar
- 7.Arora, A., et al.: Kansei: A High-Fidelity Sensing Testbed. In: IEEE Internet Computing, Special Issue on Large-Scale Sensor Networks (March 2006)Google Scholar
- 8.Srinivasan, K., Levis, P.: RSSI is Under Appreciated. In: Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (2006)Google Scholar
- 9.Handziski, V., et al.: A Scalable and Reconfigurable Testbed for Wireless Indoor Experiments with Sensor Network. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks: from Theory to Reality (2006)Google Scholar
- 10.Werner-Allen, Swieskowski, Welsh: MoteLab: a wireless sensor network testbed. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (2005)Google Scholar
- 11.TinyOS Project, http://www.tinyos.net
- 12.Memsic Corporation, http://www.memsic.com/
- 13.EasySen Corporation, http://www.easysen.com/
- 14.Aten Corporation, http://www.aten.com/
- 15.Mac Mini PC, Apple Corporation, http://www.apple.com/macmini/
- 16.Exscal Project, http://cast.cse.ohio-state.edu/exscal/
- 17.LinkSys NSLU2, http://www.cisco.com/
- 18.Crossbow Corporation, http://www.xbow.com/