Fill Time, Inventory and Capacity in a Multi-Item Production Line under Heijunka Control

  • Andreas Tegel
  • Bernhard Fleischmann
Conference paper
Part of the Operations Research Proceedings book series (ORP)


The concept of production levelling (or Heijunka), which is part of the Toyota Production System, aims at reducing the variance of upstream material requirements and of workload utilization.When using Heijunka control, however, the fluctuation of the external demand has to be compensated by the fill time (the time from demand arrival until fulfilment) and/or end product inventory and/or reserve capacity. The inventory is usually controlled by Kanban loops. But precise statements on the necessary number of Kanban to guarantee a certain fill time are missing in literature.We consider a multi-item production line with a given Heijunka schedule and Poisson demand.We derive approximate analytic relationships between fill time, inventory and capacity for three different planning situations.


Capacity Utilization Reserve Capacity Production Period Bullwhip Effect Toyota Production System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arnold, D., Furmans, K.: Materialfluss in Logistiksystemen. Springer, Berlin, 5. ed. (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buzacott, J. A., Shanthikumar, J. G.: Stochastic models of manufacturing systems. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hopp, W. J., Spearman, M. L.: Factory physics. Irwin/McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2. ed. (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miltenburg, J.: Level schedules for mixed-model JIT production lines. International Journal of Production Research, 45, 3555 - 3577 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ross, S. M.: Introduction to probability models. Academic Press, Amsterdam, 9. ed. (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tegel, A.: Analyse und Optimierung der Produktionsglaettung fuer Mehrprodukt-Fliesslinien - Eine Studie zum Lean-Production-Konzept. Dissertation, Universitaet Augsburg (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Robert Bosch GmbH, Bosch Green LogisticsLeinfelden-EchterdingenGermany
  2. 2.University of AugsburgAugsburgGermany

Personalised recommendations