The Contribution of Urban Effect to the Warming Trends of Air Temperature in Athens

  • D. Founda
  • F. Pierros
  • M. Petrakis
  • C. S. Zerefos
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


Mediterranean is identified as one of the most vulnerable areas in the context of future climate projections and global warming. Greece in particular, has experienced significant warming over the past 3 decades, which is more pronounced in summer. At urban areas, air temperature trends are the result of the additive effect of global warming and urbanization. The study focuses on the city of Athens and aims to investigate and quantify the contribution of the urban effect to the recent significant warming, observed at the area. Although spatial distribution of urban heat island in Athens is extensively studied, its temporal variability hasn’t been investigated. Long term observations of surface air temperature at stations of different characteristics (urban, suburban, coastal, neighbor rural etc.) are analysed in order to estimate the evolution of urban heat island (UHI) intensity over time. Temporal variability of UHI at the different stations provides information on increasing/decreasing or stabilized urban effect and enables the estimation of the rates of background warming. Analysis is performed on an annual and seasonal basis.


Urban Heat Island Urban Station Urban Effect Urban Heat Island Intensity Future Climate Projection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors are grateful to the Hellenic National Meteorological Service for providing climatic data from its network.


  1. Buishand TA (1982) Some methods for testing the homogeneity of rainfall records. J Hydrol 58:11–27. doi: 10.106/0022-1694(82)90066-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Founda D (2011) Evolution of the air temperature in Athens and evidence of climatic change: a review. Adv Build Energy Res 5:7–41. doi: 10.1080/175/2549-2011-582332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Karapiperis PP (1954) Trends in Athens temperature. Pure Appl Geophys 29:212–217. doi: 10.1007/BF01988615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Katsoulis BD, Theoharatos GA (1985) Indications of the urban heat island in Athens, Greece. J Clim Appl Meteorol 24:1296–1302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Livada I, Santamouris M, Niachou K, Papanikolaou N, Mihalakakou G (2002) Determination of places in the great Athens area where the heat island effect is observed. Theor Appl Climatol 71:219–230. doi: 10.1007/s007040200006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Oke TR (1973) City size and the urban heat island. Atmos Environ 7:769–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Peterson TC (2003) Assessment of urban versus rural in situ surface temperatures in the contiguous United States: no difference found. J Clim 16:2941–2959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pettitt AN (1979) A non-parametric approach to the change-point detection. Appl Stat 28:126–135. doi: 10.2307/2346729 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Philandras CM, Metaxas D, Nastos P (1999) Climate variability and urbanization in Athens. Theor Appl Climatol 63:65–72. doi: 10.1007/s007040050092 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Santamouris M, Papanikolaou N, Livada I, Koronakis I, Georgakis C, Argiriou A, Assimakopoulos DN (2001) On the impact of urban climate to the energy consumption of buildings. Sol Energy 70:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Stone BJ (2007) Urban and rural temperature trends in proximity to large US cities: 1951–2000. Int J Climatol 27:1801–1807. doi: 10.1002/joc.1555 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Founda
    • 1
  • F. Pierros
    • 1
  • M. Petrakis
    • 1
  • C. S. Zerefos
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable DevelopmentNational Observatory of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Research Center for Atmospheric Physics and ClimatologyAcademy of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations