Contribution to the Study of Regional Actual Evapotranspiration with the Use of Surface Energy Balance and Remote Sensing for Central Greece

  • M. Spiliotopoulos
  • A. Loukas
  • H. Michalopoulou
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa) is one of the main components of the hydrologic cycle and a continuous effort arises in order to improve its estimation. In this study in-situ data from selected meteorological stations over central Greece are used to calculate daily ETa values during the warm season. These values then are combined with ETa values computed with SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) method. SEBAL is an image-processing model comprised of 25 computational submodels that computes ETa and other energy exchanges as a component of energy balance. A series of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite images were acquired and used for the estimation of ETa on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Landsat images consist of eight spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30 m for Bands 1–7. ETa values generated from two different sources are then analyzed and annotated. Finally ETa values are mapping provided a useful and efficient tool for the estimation of regional actual evapotranspiration used for water resources and irrigation scheduling and management.


Heat Flux Normalize Difference Vegetation Index Latent Heat Flux Irrigation Schedule Soil Heat Flux 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is supported by EFP7’s “Sustainable use of irrigation water in the Mediterranean Region” (SIRIMED). The authors acknowledge National Observatory of Athens, and Centre for Research and Technology, Thessaly, Greece for the provided meteorological data as well as NASA Warehouse Inventory Search Tool for the provided satellite data.


  1. Alexandridis TK, Chemin Y, Cherif I, Tsakoumis G, Galanis G, Arampatzis G, Zalidis GC, Silleos NG, Stavrinos E (2008) Improving spatial resolution of agricultural water use estimation using ALOS AVNIR-2 imagery. In: Proceedings of the ALOS principal investigators symposium, Rhodes, Greece, 8pp, 3–7 Nov 2008Google Scholar
  2. Allen RG (2000) REF-ET: reference evapotranspiration calculation software for FAO and ASCE standardized equations, University of Idaho,
  3. Bastiaanssen WGM (2000) SEBAL-based sensible and latent heat fluxes in the irrigated Gediz Basin, Turkey. J Hydrol 229:87–100. doi: 10.1016/S0022-1694(99)00202-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastiaanssen WGM, Menenti M, Feddes RA, Holtslag AAM (1998a) A remote sensing surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL): 1. Formulation. J Hydrol 212–213:198–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastiaanssen WGM, Pelgrum H, Wang J, Ma Y, Moreno J, Roerink GJ, van der Wal T (1998b) The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL): part 2 validation. J Hydrol 212–213:213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bastiaanssen WGM, Noordman EJM, Pelgrum H, Davids G, Thoreson BP, Allen RG (2005) SEBAL model with remotely sensed data to improve water resources management under actual field conditions. J Irrig Drain E-ASCE 131:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao ZQ, Liu CS, Gao W, Chang NB (2011) A coupled remote sensing and the surface energy balance with topography algorithm (SEBTA) to estimate actual evapotranspiration over heterogeneous terrain. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 15:119–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li ZL, Tang R, Wan Z, Bi Y, Zhou C, Tang B, Yan G, Zhang X (2009) A review of current methodologies for regional evapotranspiration estimation from remotely sensed data. Sensors 9:3801–3853. doi: 10.3390/s90503801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liakatas A, Anadranistakis M (1992) Derived meteorological parameters: evapotranspiration, hydroscope: creation of a National Databank for Hydrological and Meteorological Information, Contractor: Department of water resources, hydraulic and maritime engineering – N.T.U.A, Report 5/4, Hellenic National Meteorological Service, Athens, 31 Dec 1992, p 31Google Scholar
  10. Monin AS, Obukhov AM (1954) Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere. Tr Akad Nauk SSSR Geofiz Inst 24:163–187Google Scholar
  11. Morse A, Kramber WJ, Allen RG, Tasumi M (2004) Use of the METRIC evapotranspiration model to compute water use by irrigated agriculture in Idaho. In: Proceedings of the 2004 international geophysical and remote sensing symposium; Anchorage, AKGoogle Scholar
  12. Olioso A, Chauki H, Courault D, Wigneron JP (1999) Estimation of evapotranspiration and photosynthesis by assimilation of remote sensing data into SVAT models. Remote Sens Environ 68:341–356. doi: 10.1016/S0034-4257(98)00121-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Papadavid G, Hatjimitsis D, Toulios L (2011) Estimating evapotranspiration of groundnuts using remote sensing; a modified SEBAL model under the current Cypriot conditions. Hydrol Sci J (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Penman HL (1963) Vegetation and Hydrology. Technical Communication No. 53, Commonwealth Bureau of Soils, Harpenden, UKGoogle Scholar
  15. Priestley CHB, Taylor RJ (1972) On the assessment of surface heat flux and evaporation using large-scale parameters. Mon Weather Rev 100(2):81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shuttleworth WJ (1993) Evaporation. In: Maidment DR (ed) Handbook of hydrology. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 4.1–4.53Google Scholar
  17. Spiliotopoulos M, Loukas, Vasiliades L (2008) Actual evapotranspiration estimation from satellite-based surface energy balance model in Thessaly, Greece. In: Fifth EGU General Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts 10, p 08278Google Scholar
  18. Tsakiris G (1995) Water Resources: 1. Technical Hydrology (in Greek). Simmetria Publications, Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  19. Waters R, Allen R, Bastiaanssen W (2002) SEBAL. Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land. Idaho Implementation. Advanced Training and Users Manual, Idaho, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Spiliotopoulos
    • 1
  • A. Loukas
    • 1
  • H. Michalopoulou
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Hydrology and Aquatic Systems Analysis, Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  2. 2.Division of Environmental Physics and Meteorology, Department of PhysicsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations