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Membrane Excitation and Cytoplasmic Streaming as Modulators of Photosynthesis and Proton Flows in Characean Cells

  • A. A. Bulychev
Chapter

Abstract

Internodal cells of Chara corallina represent a unique model system to study interactions between photosynthesis, membrane excitation, and cytoplasmic streaming, as well as the role of these processes in generation and regulation of functional patterns in green cells and tissues. It is established that the inflow of cytoplasm from darkened cell parts promotes photosynthetic activity of chloroplasts residing at intermediate irradiance, whereas the arrival of cytoplasm from illuminated regions suppresses this activity and enhances nonphotochemical quenching. The vectorial movement of the “irradiated” cytoplasm induces functional asymmetry around the light spot (pattern formation) both in the chloroplast layer and in the plasma membrane. The messenger transported between illuminated and shaded cell parts was found to move at the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming. The effects of membrane excitation (action potential) on photosynthesis and membrane H+ transport are area specific; they are mediated by different mechanisms under physiological conditions and in the presence of some redox-cycling compounds. The influence of action potential on chlorophyll fluorescence under spot illumination appears to involve the activation of Ca2+-mediated pathways and the suppression of metabolite exchange between darkened and illuminated cell parts due to the stoppage of cyclosis. The cytoplasmic flow from darkened to illuminated cell parts seems to enhance interactions between respiratory and light-dependent metabolism, which promotes photosynthesis and protects chloroplasts from photooxidative damage under excess light.

Keywords

Methyl Viologen Action Potential Generation Cytoplasmic Streaming Alkaline Zone Characean Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AOI

area of inspection where external pH and chlorophyll fluorescence are measured in Chara internodal cell;

AP

action potential;

CB

cytochalasin B;

DTT

dithiothreitol;

MV

methyl viologen;

NPQ

nonphotochemical quenching;

pHc

cytosolic pH;

pHo

pH near the cell surface in the outer medium;

PM

plasma membrane;

PFD

photon flux density;

PSI and PSII

photosystems I and II;

ROS

reactive oxygen species;

ΔF/Fm

effective quantum yield of electron transport in PSII

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biophysics, BiologyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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