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pH Banding in Charophyte Algae

  • Mary J. Beilby
  • Mary A. Bisson
Chapter

Abstract

The internodal cells of Characean algal species have long served as a model for membrane processes in plants, because their large size (up to several centimetres in length), simple geometry (cylinder) and clear separation from other cells in the plant have allowed experimental techniques such as multielectrode electrophysiological techniques and cell perfusion. However, the membranes of these cells are not homogeneous, but show distinct differences in their electrophysiological characteristics and transport capabilities. The most obvious example of this non uniformity is the pH difference seen in the external medium surrounding the cells, the “acid bands”, with a pH similar or slightly acid to the bulk medium, and “alkaline bands”, which can support a pH of 10 or higher. We explore here the transport properties that underlie these differences and their relation to photosynthesis.

Keywords

Banding Pattern Cytoplasmic Streaming Unstirred Layer Perfuse Cell Acid Band 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

AP

Action potential

APW

Artificial pond water

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

AZ

Acetazolamide

Ej

Nernst potential for the ion j

DIC

Dissolved inorganic carbon

DES

Diethylstilbestrol

DCMU

(3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea

DCCD

N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

EZA

Ethoxyzolamide, an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase

EDAC

1–ethyl -3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl) carbodiimide

Evo

Vacuole to outside potential difference

Eco

Cytoplasm to outside potential difference

Evc

Vacuole to cytoplasm potential difference

F

Faraday constant 96,485.3 C/mol in Eqs. 11.111.3

F

Fluorescence yield

F’m

Saturation fluorescence

GHK

Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation

gbkg

Background conductance (I/V modelling)

G/V

Conductance as a function of voltage

\( \Updelta \bar{\mu }_{H} ,\Updelta \bar{\mu }_{\text{Na}} \)

Electrical chemical potential difference for H+ or Na+, respectively

H+/OH state

State of the membrane whose electrical characteristics are dominated by H+ or OH leak

Hepes

4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid, zwitterionic buffer with pKa = 7.55/OH

Ibkg

Background current (I/V modelling)

kio0, koI0, kio, koi

Proton pump parameters (I/V modelling)

I/V

Current as a function of voltage

NEM

N-ethyl maleimide

NPQ

Non-photochemical quenching, a measure of impairment of photosynthesis derived from fluorescence studies

NXPX

Number of channels conducting ion X

PCMBS

p-(chloromercuri)benzene sulfonate

PD

Electrical potential difference across a membrane

pHc

Cytoplasmic pH

pHo

External pH

Po− and Po+

Open probabilities of a channel at negative and positive potentials, respectively

R

Gas constant 8.314 J/mol.K

Rco

Plasma membrane resistance

T

Temperature in Kelvin

V

Transmembrane PD in volts

V50

Half-activation potential (Eqs. 11.2, 11.3)

Vbkg

Background current reversal PD (I/V modelling, usually taken as -100 mV)

[X]o, [X]i

Medium and intracellular concentrations, respectively, of ion X (Eq. 11.1)

Y′

Quantum yield, a measure of photosynthesis derived from fluorescence studies

Z

Valency of ion X (Eq. 11.1)

zg

Charge associated with channel gating (Eqs. 11.2, 11.3)

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physics, University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

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