Advertisement

Social Benefits of Landslide Prevention and Mitigation in Hong Kong, China

  • Zhong Qi Yue
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

The urban development and infrastructure of Hong Kong are basically built on hillside slopes of 20–50°. Landslide is the severest geohazard in Hong Kong. Since 1977, engineers and researchers in Hong Kong have done tremendous work and investigations in landslide prevention and mitigation. They have made many significant contributions to Hong Kong. At present, Hong Kong slope safety standard has become one of the highest standards in the world. This paper gives a brief summary of landslide disaster prevention and mitigation history in Hong Kong. It discusses in detail eight social benefits. They are the lowest landslide fatality in mountainous urban developments, enhancing social stability and governance, job and training opportunities, sustainable development and prosperity, rehousing squatters for resolving social issues, self-restricted land use for urban development, technology innovation and advancement, and local and international recognitions. It points out five difficulties encountered during landslide disaster prevention and mitigation. They are incorrect landslide causes and mechanisms, change in slope safety standard, dramatic change in rainfall, doubts about long term investment nature, and no right on land use. Finally, it is remarked that Hong Kong has established, trained and maintained a team of hundred or thousand competent geotechnical engineers who can address any technical challenges in future urban developments in the sea and/or on the mountains for Hong Kong.

Keywords

Landslides Disaster prevention and mitigation Land use Social benefits Slope safety Urban model 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Mr. Y. C. Chan, Mr. G. Daughton, Dr. D.X. Pan, and Mr. J. D. Legge for their advices and cares when he came to Hong Kong from Canada and practiced landslide prevention projects from 1996 to 1999. The work is financially supported by The University of Hong Kong and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, Grant No. 2011CB710600).

References

  1. Bishop AW (1955) The use of the Slip Circle in the Stability Analysis of Slopes. Geotechnique 5:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. GEO (2000) Geotechnical manual for slopes. Fourth reprint, Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO), The Government of HK SAR. 300 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. GEO (2007) Thirty Years of slope safety practice in Hong Kong. Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO), The Government of Hong Kong SAR 625 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. GEO (2008) Guide to soil nail design and construction, Geoguide 7, Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO), Government of HKSAR. Hong Kong, China, 97 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Janbu N (1972) Slope stability computations. Embankment dam engineering: casagrande volume. Wiley, New York, pp 47–86Google Scholar
  6. HKSARG (2010) Hong Kong year book, by Government of HKSAR, Hong Kong, China. 494 pp. (http://www.yearbook.gov.hk/)
  7. Lumb P (1975) Slope failures in Hong Kong. Q J Eng Geol 8(1):31–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Malone AW (1998) Risk management and slope safety in Hong Kong. In: Li KS (ed) Slope Engineering in Hong Kong. Balkema, JN Kay and KKS Ho, pp 3–17Google Scholar
  9. Morgenstern NR (2000) Common ground, Keynote address. In: Proceedings of international conference on GeoEng, Melbourne, vol 1, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  10. Morgenstern NR, Price VE (1965) The analysis of the stability of general slip surfaces. Geotechnique 15:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shiu YK, Chang GWK, Cheung WM (2006) Review of limit equilibrium methods for soil nail design, Special Project Report SPR 3/2006, Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO), Government of HKSAR, Hong Kong, China, 105 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. Wan SP, Yue ZQ (2004) Significant cost implications in using Janbu’s simplified or Morgenstern–Price slice methods for soil nail design of cut slopes. Trans Hong Kong Inst Eng 11(1):54–63Google Scholar
  13. Wan SP, Yue ZQ (2005) Significant cost implications in using Janbu’s simplified or Morgenstern-Price slice methods for soil nail design of cut slopes, replies to discussions. Trans Hong Kong Inst Eng 12(1):49–51Google Scholar
  14. Yue ZQ (2003) HKU Jockey Club Research and Information Centre for landslip prevention and land development. Mainland–Hong Kong Academic Exchange, Edited and published by Beijing–Hong Kong Academic Exchange Centre, Hong Kong, March 2003, vol 57, pp 32–35 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. Yue ZQ (2004a) Landslide hazard management and prevention in Hong Kong. Operating mechanism for disaster management, Qunyan pressing, pp 139–162 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  16. Yue ZQ (2004b) Automatic monitoring of drilling process for optimizing ground anchorage. In: Proceedings of the 8th conference of Chinese Association of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Chengdu, Science Press, pp 879–886 Oct 2004 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  17. Yue ZQ (2005) Automatic drilling process monitoring for soil and rock strengths and their spatial distribution in ground. In: Proceedings of the 2nd world forum of Chinese scholars in Geotechnical Engineering, Nanjing, China, pp 85–90, 22–22 Aug 2005 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Yue ZQ (2006) Hong Kong landslip prevention and its social benefits. J Eng Geol 14(Supplements):12–17 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. Yue ZQ (2010) Automatic monitoring of drilling process for mechanical profiles of grounds composing both soils and rocks. In: Proceedings of the 4th Japan–China geotechnical symposium, Okinawa, Japan, pp 230–235, 12–14 April 2010Google Scholar
  20. Yue ZQ (2011) Optimization of pre-stressed ground anchors or grout-in-type soil nails with drilling process monitoring. In: Proceedings of the third international conference on Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation (3ICGEDMAR 2011) together with the fifth international conference on Geotechnical and Highway Engineering—practical applications, challenges and opportunities (5ICGHE), Semarang, Indonesia, 18–20 May 2011, pp 573–578Google Scholar
  21. Yue ZQ, Lee CF, Law KT, Tham LG, Sugawara J (2002) Use of HKU drilling process monitor in soil nailing in slope stabilization. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 21(11):1685–1690Google Scholar
  22. Yue ZQ, Guo JY, Tham LG, Lee CF (2003) Application of HKU DPM in automation of geotechnical design and construction. In: Proceedings of the first national congress on Geo-Eng China, vol 1, pp 147–155. China Communications Press, ISBN 7-114-04724-X. Beijing, China, 22–25 Oct 2003Google Scholar
  23. Yue ZQ, Lee CF, Tham LG (2004a) Automatic drilling process monitoring for rationalizing soil nail design and construction. In: Proceedings of the 2004 annual seminar of HKIE geotechnical division, Hong Kong, China, 14 May 2004, pp 217–234Google Scholar
  24. Yue ZQ, Guo JY, Tham LG, Lee CF (2004b) Drilling process monitoring for ground characterizations during soil nailing in weathered soil slopes, Geotechnical and geophysical site characterization. In: Viana Da Fonseca A, Mayne PW, Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on site characterization (ISC-2), Porto, Portugal, vol 2, 1219–1224, 19–22 Sept 2004Google Scholar
  25. Yue ZQ, Lee CF, Law KT, Tham LG (2004c) Automatic monitoring of rotary-percussive drilling for ground characterization—illustrated by a case example in Hong Kong. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41:573–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yue ZQ, Gao W, Chen J, Lee CF (2006) Drilling process monitoring for a wealth of extra factual data from drillhole site investigation. In: Proceedings of the 10th international congress of the International Association of Engineering Geology (IAEG2006 Engineering Geology for Tomorrow’s Cities), Nottingham, UK, 6–10 Sept 2006. Theme 5—Urban site investigation, paper number: 5–746, pp 1–10 (CD RAM softcopy); Abstracts: p 87 (hardcopy)Google Scholar
  27. Yue ZQ, Chen J, Gao W (2007) Automatic drilling process monitoring (DPM) for in situ characterization of weak rock mass strength with depth. In: Proceedings of the 1st Canada-US rock mechanics symposium (Rock Mechanics: meeting society’s challenges and demands), Eberhardt E, Stead D, Morrison T (eds) Vancouver, Canada, 27–31 May 2007, Taylor & Franics, London, vol 1, pp 199–206Google Scholar
  28. Yue ZQ, Chen J, Gao W (2008) An innovative approach combining geological mapping and drilling process monitoring for quantitative assessment of natural terrain hazards, In: Proceedings of the 10th international symposium on landslides and engineered slopes, June 30–July 4, 2008, Xi’an, China, pp 535–541Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringThe University of Hong KongHong KongPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations