Assessment of the 2004/2011 Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan: Lesson Learnt and Way Forward

  • Iman Satyarno
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Two great of around magnitude nine earthquakes those followed by big tsunamis have happened in Indonesia on December 24, 2004 known by Aceh earthquake and in Japan on March 11, 2011 known by Tohoku earthquake. Unlike Japan, Indonesia has hardly any preparedness in terms of people capacity and tsunami countermeasure structures technology at that time, therefore the number of infrastructure damages and casualties in Aceh tsunami is very high. However, the number of infrastructure damages and casualties due to Tohoku tsunami is still considered very high too. It was noted because the current preparedness and developed tsunami countermeasure structures including the natural ones like mangrove forest or coastal vegetations did not work well during the tsunami. The lesson learnt from these two tsunamis bring to a conclusion that further studies are still required to find better and more appropriate analysis, design and applications of countermeasures structures. Currently, there are still many areas around the world which are potential to be hit by tsunami like West Sumatra province in Indonesia.


Casualties Evacuation Inundation Preparedness Seawall Tsunami 



I would like to thank to TDMRC (Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Centre) and Syiah Kuala University Aceh for their invitation to Aceh to have a seminar and visiting some areas affected by December 26, 2004 earthquake and tsunami on December 22–24, 2011. Special thanks also to JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and ICUS (International Center for Urban Safety Engineering) Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo for their invitation to visit some areas affected by March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami from November 24 to December 3, 2011, especially for Mr Watanabe and Mr Numada who always guided the travelling. Also thanks to New Zealand Aid Program who funded the Local Government Training for Capacity Building in Disaster Risk Management in Padang, West Sumatra on February 24–28, 2012.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringGadjah Mada UniversityYogyakartaIndonesia

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