Wastewater Reuse Health and Safety Issues

  • Robert Maliva
  • Thomas Missimer
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


The health hazards associated with wastewater are a function of concentration of contaminants in the wastewater, the duration and level of exposure, and the dose–response function for each hazard. An important issue when evaluating the potential health impacts (on humans, as well as on the general environment) of wastewater reuse is that the risk associated with contaminant exposure depends upon both the duration and intensity of exposure. A fundamental distinction is between acute and chronic exposure. An acute exposure is a one-time exposure to a substance or microorganism that is sufficient to cause a serious health impact. A one-time exposure to pathogenic microorganisms, such as consuming water that contains even small numbers of active Cryptosporidium cysts or Giardia oocysts or enteric viruses, may be sufficient to cause serious illness.


Fecal Coliform Water Quality Standard Fecal Contamination Enteric Virus Wastewater Treatment Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Maliva
    • 1
  • Thomas Missimer
    • 2
  1. 1.Schlumberger Water ServicesFort MyersUSA
  2. 2. Water Desalination and Reuse CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalSaudi Arabia

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