Advertisement

Environmental Issues in Desalination

  • Robert Maliva
  • Thomas Missimer
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)

Abstract

Desalination is an energy intensive technology, especially when applied to seawater. Therefore, desalination has both high costs and a very large carbon footprint when conventional energy sources are used to power the various desalination processes. A variety of renewable energy sources are available that can be applied to reduce the carbon footprint of desalination. The global environmental impact of desalination can be reduced in terms of carbon dioxide emissions, but at a cost. Seawater desalination facilities will still have some environmental impacts on local areas related to intakes and outfalls of concentrate. Brackish-water desalination of groundwater can create a potential resource depletion problem and also faces the challenge of finding an economical and environmentally sound means of concentrate disposal, particularly for inland facilities.

Keywords

Injection Well Horizontal Well Desalination Plant Evaporation Pond Solar Pond 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abbaspour, M., Javid, A. H., Moghimi, P., & Kayhan, K. (2006, September 4–6). Modeling of thermal pollution in the northern coastal area of the Persian Gulf and its economic and environmental assessment. In Proceedings, 8th Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Pollution, Water Pollution (pp. 445–453), WP06, Bologna, Italy.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed, M., Arakel, A., Hoey, D., & Coleman, M. (2001). Integrated power, water and salt generation: A discussion paper. Desalination, 134(1), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ake, J., Mahrer, K., O’Donnell, D., & Block, L. (2002). Deep-injection and closely monitored induced seismicity at Paradise Valley, Colorado. Seismological Society of America Bulletin, 95, 664–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrews, L. S., Moore, R. D., & Rose, C. T. (1991). Permitting the discharge of reverse osmosis concentrate to surface water. In Proceedings, American Water Works Association Seminar on Membrane Technologies in the Water Industry (pp. 458–501).Google Scholar
  5. Bond, R., Batchelor, B., Davis, T., & Klayman, B. (2011). Zero liquid discharge desalination of brackish water with an innovative form of electrodialysis: Electrodialysis metathesis. Florida Water Resources Journal, 63(7), 36–44.Google Scholar
  6. Bond, R., & Veerapaneni, S. (2007). Zero liquid discharge for inland desalination. Denver: AWWA Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  7. Bond, P., & Veerapaneni, S. (2008). Zeroing in on ZLD technologies for inland desalination. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 100(9), 76–89.Google Scholar
  8. Bond, P., & Veerapaneni, S. (2009). New strategies for managing desalination concentrate with zero discharge from two WRF research projects. In Proceedings of World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2009: Great Rivers (Vol. 342, pp. 5478–5487).Google Scholar
  9. Bramer, R. N. (1990). Power station thermal effluents and marine crustaceans. Journal of Thermal Biology, 15(1), 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bramer, R. N. (1995). The influence of rising background temperature on the effects of marine thermal effluents. Journal of Thermal Biology, 20(1–2), 105–110.Google Scholar
  11. Burnett, D. B. (2007). Desalination of brackish water and disposal into waterflood injection wells. Final Report Submitted to The Stripper Well Consortium. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University.Google Scholar
  12. Conlon, W. J. (1988). Disposal of concentrate from membrane process plant. In Proceedings, American Water Works Association Seminar 54 on Membrane Process Principles and Practice, 62nd Annual Conference and Exposition.Google Scholar
  13. Conlon, W. J. (1989). Disposal of concentrate. Waterworld News, 5(1), 18–19.Google Scholar
  14. Conlon, W. J. (1990). Historical development of concentrate regulations. Desalination, 78, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conlon, W. J., & Smith, J. E. (1991). Brine waste diposal from membrane process. In Proceedings of the American Water Works Association/WPCF Joint Residuals Management Conference. Durham, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  16. Cotruvo, J., Voutchkov, N., Fawell, J., Payment, P., Cunliffe, D., & Lattemann, S. (Eds.), (2010). Desalination Technology: Health and Environmental Impacts. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  17. Einav, R., Harussi, K., & Perry, D. (2002). The footprint of the desalination processes on the environment. Desalination, 152, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hashim, A., & Hajjaj, M. (2005). Impact of desalination plants fluid effluents on the integrity of seawater, with the Arabian Gulf in perspective. Desalination, 182, 373–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Höpner, T., & Lattemann, S. (2002). Chemical impacts from seawater desalination plants—A case study of the Northern Red Sea. Desalination, 152, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Höpner, T., & Windelberg, J. (1997). Elements of environmental impact studies on coastal desalination plants. Desalination, 108, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jeppersen, T., Shu, L., Keir, G., & Jegatheesan, V. (2009). Metal recovery from reverse osmosis concentrate. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 703–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Laspidou, C., Hadjibiros, K., & Gialis, S. (2010). Minimizing the environmental impact of sea brine disposal by coupling desalination plant with solar saltworks: A case study for Greece. Water, 2, 75–84. doi: 10.3990/w20100075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lattemann, S., & Höpner, T. (2003). Seawater desalination: Impacts of brine and chemical discharge on the marine environment. LAquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publications.Google Scholar
  24. Lattemann, S., & Höpner, T. (2008). Environmental impact and impact assessment of seawater desalination. Desalination, 220, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu, H., Walton, J. C., & Swift, A. H. P. (2001). Desalination coupled with salinity-gradient solar ponds. Desalination, 136, 13–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lu, H., Swift, A. H. P., Hein, H. D., Jr., & Walton, J. C. (2004). Advancements in salinity gradient solar pond technology based on sixteen years of operational experience. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 126, 759–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mace, R. E., Nicot, J.-P., Chowdhury, A. H., Dutton, A. R., & Kalaswad, S. (2006). Please pass the salt: Using oil fields for the disposal of concentrate from desalination plants. Texas Water Development Board Report 366.Google Scholar
  28. Mackey, E. D., & Seacord, D. (2008). Regional solutions for concentrate management. Alexandria, Virginia: WateReuse Foundation.Google Scholar
  29. Mahrer, K., Ake, J., Block, L., O’Donnell, D., & Bundy, J. (2005). Injecting brine and inducing seismicity at the world’s deepest injection well, Paradox Valley, Southwest Colorado. In C.-F. Tsang & J. A. Apps (Eds.), Underground injection science and technology, Developments in Water Science 52 (pp. 361–375). Amsterdam: Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maliva, R. G., Coulibaly, K., Guo, W., & Missimer, T. M. (2011). Confined aquifer loading: Implications for groundwater management. Ground Water, 49(3), 302–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maliva, R. G., & Walker, C. W. (1998). Hydrogeology of deep-well disposal of liquid wastes in Southwestern Florida, U.S.A. Hydrogeology Journal, 6, 538–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Malomosr, P., Lozier, J., Mickley, M., Reis, R., Russel, J., Schaefer, J., et al. (2004). Current perspectives on residuals management for desalting membranes. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 96(12), 73–87.Google Scholar
  33. MEDRC. (2002). Assessment of the composition of desalination plant disposal brines: Project NO-98-AS-026, Middle East Desalination Research Center (MEDRC), Oman.Google Scholar
  34. Mickley, M. (1996). Environmental considerations for disposal of desalination concentrates. The International Desalination and Water Reuse Quarterly, 5(4), 56–61.Google Scholar
  35. Mickley, M. (2000). Major ion toxicity in membrane concentrate. American Water Works Association.Google Scholar
  36. Mickley, M. (2001). Membrane concentrate disposal: Practices and regulation. Bureau of Reclamation, Report. Denver, Colorado, US.Google Scholar
  37. Mickley, M. (2002). Municipal membrane plants: Growth trends, and concentrate/backwash disposal practices and issues, Proceedings. Tampa, Florida: American Membrane Technology Association Biennial Conference and Exposition.Google Scholar
  38. Mickley, M. (2003). Desalination concentrate management and issues in the United States. In Proceedings of the International Desalination Association World Congress on Desalination and Water Reuse. Paradise Island, Bahamas, Paper BAH03-155.Google Scholar
  39. Mickley, M. (2007). RO concentrate management. In M. Wilf (Ed.), the guidebook to membrane desalination technology: Reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and hybrid systems process, design, application, and economic (pp. 375–394). L’Aquila, Italy: Balaban Desalination Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Mickley, M. (2009). Desalination and water purification research and development and program no. 155: Treatment of concentrate. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Contract No. DIBR 04-FC-81-1050, Final Report.Google Scholar
  41. Mickley, M., Hamilton, R., Gallegos, L., & Truesdall, J. (1993). Membrane concentrate disposal. American Water Works Association, Report. Denver, Colorado: American Water Resources Association Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  42. Missimer, T. M. (2009). Water supply development, aquifer storage, and concentrate disposal for membrane water treatment facilities: Methods in Water Resources Evaluation Series No. 1. Houston: Schlumberger Water Services.Google Scholar
  43. Missimer, T. M., Guo, W., Martin, W. K., & Thompson, D. M. (2002). Concentrate chemistry as a control of deep well disposal and effects on membrane treatment plant design. Tampa Bay Brackish-water R. O. plant design. Proceedings, American Membrane Technology Biennial Conference and Exposition.Google Scholar
  44. Missimer, T. M., & Pankratz, T. (2009). Concentrate water disposal. In T. M. Missimer (Ed.), Water supply development, aquifer storage, and concentrate disposal for membrane water treatment facilities (pp. 253–280). Houston, Texas: Schlumberger Water Services, Methods in Water Resources Evaluation Series No. 1.Google Scholar
  45. Missimer, T. M., & Winters, H. (2003). Reduction of biofouling at a seawater RO plant in the Cayman Islands. In Proceedings of the International Desalination Association World Conference on Desalination and Water Reuse, BAH03-190.Google Scholar
  46. Mohamed, A. M. O., Maraqa, M., & Al Handhaly, J. (2005). Impact of land disposal of reject brine from desalination plants on soil and groundwater. Desalination, 182(1–3), 411–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morton, A. J., Callister, I. K., & Wade, N. M. (1996). Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes. Desalination, 108, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muniz, A., & Skehan, S. T. (1990). Disposal of concentrate from brackish water desalting plants by use of deep injection wells. Desalination, 78, 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. National Research Council (2008a). Prospects for managed underground storage of recoverable water. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  50. National Research Council (2008b). Desalination—A national perspective. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  51. Naylor, E. (1965). Effects of heated effluents upon marine and estuarine organisms. Advanced Maine Biology, 3, 63–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nicot, J.-P., & Chowdhury, A. H. (2005). Disposal of brackish water concentrate into depleted oil and gas fields: A Texas study. Desalination, 181, 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Oren, Y., Korngold, E., Daltrophe, N., Messalem, R., Volkman, Y., Aronov, L., et al. (2010). Pilot studies on high recovery BWRO-EDR for near zero liquid discharge approach. Desalination, 261, 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pontius, F. W., Kawczynski, E., & Koorse, S. J. (1996). Regulations governing membrane concentrate disposal. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 88(5), 44–52.Google Scholar
  55. Sadhawani, J. J., Veza, J. M., & Santana, C. (2005). Case studies on environmental impact of seawater desalination. Desalination, 185, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thompson, M. A., & Brodeur, T. P. (1991). The key to membrane applications-concentrate disposal. In Proceedings, International Desalination Association World Conference on Desalination and Water Reuse.Google Scholar
  57. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (2002). Zero discharge waste brine management for desalination plants. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Report no. DRDT-REPT.Google Scholar
  58. von Medeazza, G. L. M. (2005). “Direct” and socially-induced environmental impacts of desalination. Desalination, 185(1–3), 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walker, C. W., & Missimer, T. M. (1996). Deep well injection of concentrates, The Collier County, Florida experience. In Proceedings, Biennial Conference and Exposition of the American Desalting Association, The Water Puzzle, How Does Desalting Fit In? (pp. 122–138).Google Scholar
  60. Watson, I. E., Morin, O. J., Jr., & Henthorne, L. (2003). Desalting handbook for planner’s (3rd ed.). US Bureau of Reclamation, Desalination and Water Purification Research and Development Program Report No. 72.Google Scholar
  61. World Health Organization (2007). Desalination for safe water supply, guidance for the health and environmental aspects applicable to desalination. Geneva: Public Health and the Environment World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  62. Younos, T. (2005). Environmental issues of desalination. Journal of Contemporary Water Research and Education, 132, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Maliva
    • 1
  • Thomas Missimer
    • 2
  1. 1.Schlumberger Water ServicesFort MyersUSA
  2. 2. Water Desalination and Reuse CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations