• acatech - National Academy of Science and Engineering, 2011
Part of the acatech POSITION PAPER book series


Embedded hardware and software systems are decisive driving forces for innovation in the export and growth markets of German industry. They crucially expand the functionality and, as a result, the practical value and competitiveness of vehicles, aircraft, medical equipment, production plants and household appliances. Today, about 98 percent of micro processors are embedded, connected with the outside world through sensors and actuators. They are increasingly connected with one another and the internet. The physical world and the virtual world — or cyberspace — are merging. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are being developed that are part of a globally networked future world, in which products, equipment and objects interact with embedded hardware and software beyond the limits of single applications. With the help of sensors, these systems process data from the physical world and make it available for network-based services, which in turn can have a direct effect on processes in the physical world using actuators. Through cyber-physical systems, the physical world is linked with the virtual world to form an Internet of Things, Data and Services.


Virtual World Embed System Physical World Smart Grid Remote Monitoring 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • acatech - National Academy of Science and Engineering, 2011
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.MünchenGermany
  2. 2.BerlinGermany
  3. 3.BrüsselBelgium

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