We motivate, define and construct quantum proofs of knowledge, proofs of knowledge secure against quantum adversaries. Our constructions are based on a new quantum rewinding technique that allows us to extract witnesses in many classical proofs of knowledge. We give criteria under which a classical proof of knowledge is a quantum proof of knowledge. Combining our results with Watrous’ results on quantum zero-knowledge, we show that there are zero-knowledge quantum proofs of knowledge for all languages in NP (assuming quantum 1-1 one-way functions).


Hamiltonian Cycle Proof System Commitment Scheme Auxiliary Input Oracle Access 
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Copyright information

© International Association for Cryptologic Research 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dominique Unruh
    • 1
  1. 1.University of TartuEstonia

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