Bite Marks: Evidence and Analysis, Part 1

  • Balwant Rai
  • Jasdeep Kaur


Bite marks are a vital and sometimes controversial aspect of forensic odontology. This chapter reviews the recognition and recovery of this evidence and provides insight into modern methods used to investigate bite mark evidence and its analysis from crimes.


Lateral Incisor Impression Material Bite Mark Maxillary Central Incisor Bite Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aboshi H, Taylor JA, Brown KA (1994) Comparison of bitemarks in foodstuffs by computer imaging: a case report. J Forensic Odontostomatol 12(2):41–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adelson L (1974) The pathology of homicide. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, pp 382–386Google Scholar
  3. American Board of Forensic Odontology (1995) ABFO guidelines and standards. In: Bowers CM, Bell GL (eds) Manual of forensic odontology, 3rd edn. American Society of Forensic Odontology, Colorado Springs, pp 299, 334–353Google Scholar
  4. American Board of Forensic Odontology (1997) ABFO No. 2 scale available from Lightning Powder Co, Inc., 1230 Hoyt St. SE, Salem, OR, Catalog No. 6-3875. Manual of forensic odontology, 3rd edn, 9:267Google Scholar
  5. Bowers CM (2004) Forensic dental evidence: an investigator’s handbook. Elsevier Academic Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  6. Camps FE (1976) Gradwohl’s legal medicine, 3rd edn. John Wright, Bristol, p 264Google Scholar
  7. Dorion RBJ (2005) Bitemark evidence. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Freeman AJ, Senn DR, Arendt DM (2005) Seven hundred seventy eight bite marks: analysis by anatomic location, victim and biter demographics, type of crime, and legal disposition. J Forensic Sci 50:1436–1443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heras SM, Valenzuela A, Ogayar C, Valverde AJ, Torres JC (2005) Computer-based production of comparison overlays from 3D-scanned dental casts for bite mark analysis. J Forensic Sci 50(1):1–7Google Scholar
  10. Pierce LJ (1996) The case of Ohio v. Robinson: an 1870 bite mark case. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 11:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pretty IA (2007) Development and validation of a human bitemark severity and significance scale. J Forensic Sci 52:687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pretty IA (2008) Forensic dentistry 2. Bitemarks and bite injuries. Dent Update 35:48–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Pretty IA, Sweet D (2000) Anatomical locations of bitemarks and associated findings in 101 cases from the United States. J Forensic Sci 45:812–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Pretty IA, Anderson GS, Sweet D (1999) Human bites and the risk of HIV infection. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 20:232–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rai B, Anand SC, Madan M, Dhattarwal SK (2007) Bite marks: a new identification technique. Int J Forensic Sci 2(1). Accessed on 10/7/2011
  16. Rai B (2011) Bite mark as evidence: JBR project. Unpublished data of JBR forensic odontology group, Kapurthala. Accessed on 23/6/2011Google Scholar
  17. Rai B, Kaur J (2011) Age estimation of bite marks. Indian J Forensic Odontol 2(1):3–10Google Scholar
  18. Rawson RD, Bell A, Kinard BS, Kinard JG (1979) Radiographic interpretation of contrast media-enhanced bitemarks. J Forensic Sci 24:898–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rentoule E, Smith H (1973) Glaister’s medical jurisprudence and toxicology, 13th edn. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 242–246Google Scholar
  20. Sognnaes RF, Rawson RD, Gratt BM, Nauyen BN (1982) Computer comparison of bite mark patterns in identical twins. J Am Dent Assoc 195:449–452Google Scholar
  21. Spitz WU, Fisher RS et al (1980) Medicolegal investigations of death, 2nd edn. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, pp 122–125Google Scholar
  22. Swanson HA (1967) Forensic dentistry. J Am Coll Dent 34:175Google Scholar
  23. Sweet D, Pretty IA (2001) A look at forensic dentistry. Part 2. Teeth as weapons of violence—identification of bitemark perpetrators. Br Dent J 190(8):415–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sweet D, Parhar M, Wood RE (1998) Computer based production of bitemark overlays. J Forensic Sci 43:1046–1051Google Scholar
  25. Vale GL, Noguchi TT (1983) Anatomical distribution of human bitemarks in a series of 67 cases. J Forensic Sci 28:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Van der Velden A, Spiessens M, Willems G (2006) Bite mark analysis and comparison using image perception technology. J Forensic Odontostomatol 24(1):14–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wright DW, Dailey JC (2001) Human bite marks in forensic dentistry. Dent Clin North Am 45(2):365–395PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balwant Rai
    • 1
  • Jasdeep Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Earth and Life Sciences Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ILEWGAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations