Oral Fluids and Teeth in Toxicology

  • Amal Abd El-Salam El-Bakary


Whole saliva is a mixture of oral fluids and includes secretions from salivary glands in addition to several constituents of nonsalivary origin (Navazash 1993). Oral fluid is an alternative biological matrix that might have advantages over urine for drug analysis in treatment programs. Whole saliva can be collected noninvasively and by individuals with limited training. In recent years, saliva has attracted much attention, in particular among people interested in the determination of drug concentrations. This suggests that saliva might be substituted for plasma in the areas of pharmacokinetic studies and drug monitoring because of the growing interest in noninvasive procedure (Vindenes et al. 2011).


Salivary Gland Dental Caries Oral Fluid Tooth Development Dental Fluorosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amal Abd El-Salam El-Bakary
    • 1
  1. 1.Forensic Medicine and Clinical ToxicologyMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt

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