The XML and Semantic Web Worlds: Technologies, Interoperability and Integration: A Survey of the State of the Art

  • Nikos Bikakis
  • Chrisa Tsinaraki
  • Nektarios Gioldasis
  • Ioannis Stavrakantonakis
  • Stavros Christodoulakis
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 418)


In the context of the emergent Web of Data, a large number of organizations, institutes and companies (e.g., DBpedia,ACM, IEEE, IBM, NASA,BBC,etc.) adopt the Linked Data practices and publish their data utilizing Semantic Web (SW) technologies. On the other hand, the dominant standard for information exchange in the Web today is XML. Many international standards (e.g., Dublin Core, MPEG-7,METS, TEI, IEEE LOM,etc.) have been expressed in XML Schema resulting to a large number of XML datasets. The SW and XML worlds and their developed infrastructures are based on different data models, semantics and query languages. Thus, it is crucial to provide interoperability and integration mechanisms to bridge the gap between the SW and XML worlds.

In this chapter, we give an overview and a comparison of the technologies and the standards adopted by the XML and SW worlds. In addition, we outline the latest efforts from the W3C groups, including the latest working drafts and recommendations (e.g., OWL 2, SPARQL 1.1, XML Schema 1.1, etc.). Moreover, we present a survey of the research approaches which aim to provide interoperability and integration between the XML and SW worlds. Finally, we present the SPARQL2XQuery and XS2OWL Frameworks, which bridge the gap and create an interoperable environment between the two worlds. These Frameworks provide mechanisms for: (a) Query translation (SPARQL to XQuery translation); (b) Mapping specification and generation (Ontology to XML Schema mapping); and (c) Schema transformation (XML Schema to OWL transformation).


Digital Library Resource Description Framework Resource Description Framework Data Resource Description Framework Graph Query Translation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bray, T., et al. (eds.): Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.1. W3C Recommendation (September 2006),
  2. 2.
    Manola, F., Milles, E. (eds.): RDF Primer. W3C Recommandation (February 2004),
  3. 3.
    Fallside D. (ed.): XML Schema Part 0: Primer. W3C Recommendation (October 2004),
  4. 4.
    Gao, S., Sperberg-McQueen, C.M., Thompson, H.S. (eds.): W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 1: Structures, W3C Working Draft, December 3 (2009),
  5. 5.
    Peterson, D., Gao, S., Malhotra, A., et al. (eds.): W3C XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) 1.1 Part 2: Datatypes, W3C Working Draft, December 3 (2009),
  6. 6.
    Brickley, D., Guha, R.V. (eds.): RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema. W3C Recommendation (Febuary 2004),
  7. 7.
    McGuinness, D.L., van Harmelen, F. (eds.): OWL Web Ontology Language: Overview. W3C Recommendation, Febuary 10 (2004),
  8. 8.
    Motik, B., Schneider, P.F.P., Parsia, B. (eds.): OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: Structural Specification and Functional-Style Syntax, W3C Recommendation, October 27 (2009),
  9. 9.
    Berglund, A., et al. (eds.): XML Path Language (XPath) 2.0. W3C Recommendation (January 2007),
  10. 10.
    Siméon, J., Chamberlin, D. (eds.): XQuery 1.0: an XML Query Language. W3C Recommendation (January 2007),
  11. 11.
    Malhotra, A., et al. (eds.): XQuery 1.0 and XPath 2.0 Functions and Operators W3C Recommendation, 2nd edn. (December 2010),
  12. 12.
    Robie, J., Chamberlin, D., et al. (eds.): XQuery Update Facility 1.0 W3C Recommendation (March 2011),
  13. 13.
    Case, P., Dyck, M., Holstege, M.: XQuery and XPath Full Text 1.0, W3C Recommendation (March 2011),
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Prud’hommeaux, E., Seaborne, A. (eds.): SPARQL Query Language for RDF. W3C Recommendation (January 2008),
  16. 16.
    Harris, S., Seaborne, A. (eds.): SPARQL 1.1 Query Language W3C Working Draft (October 2010),
  17. 17.
    Schenk, S., Gearon, P., Passant, A. (eds.): SPARQL 1.1 Update W3C Working Draft (October 2010),
  18. 18.
    Seaborne, A. (ed.): SPARQL 1.1 Property Paths W3C Working Draft (January 2010),
  19. 19.
    Beckett, D. (ed.): SPARQL Query Results XML Format. W3C Recommendation (January 2008),
  20. 20.
    Tsinaraki, C., Christodoulakis, S.: Interoperability of XML Schema Applications with OWL Domain Knowledge and Semantic Web Tools. In: Proc. of ODBASE 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tsinaraki, C., Christodoulakis, S.: Support for Interoperability between OWL based and XML Schema based Applications. In: the Proc. of DELOS Conference II (2007)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stavrakantonakis, I., Tsinaraki, C., Bikakis, N., Gioldasis, N., Christodoulakis, S.: SPARQL2XQuery 2.0: Supporting Semantic-based Queries over XML Data. In: The Proc. of SMAP (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lenzerini, M.: Data Integration: A Theoretical Perspective. In: Proc. of PODS 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fagin, R., Kolaitis, P., Miller, R., Popa, L.: Data exchange: semantics and query answering. Theor. Comput. Sci (TCS) 336(1) (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Farrell, J., Lausen, H. (eds.): Semantic Annotations for WSDL and XML Schema. W3C Recommendation, W3C (August 2007),
  26. 26.
    Connolly, D. (ed.): Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages W3C Recommendation, W3C (September 2007),
  27. 27.
    Groppe, S., Groppe, J., Linnemann, V., Kukulenz, D., Hoeller, N., Reinke, C.: Embedding SPARQL into XQuery/XSLT. In: Proc. of ACM SAC 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Droop, M., Flarer, M., Groppe, J., Groppe, S., Linnemann, V., Pinggera, J., Santner, F., Schier, M., Schöpf, F., Staffler, H., Zugal, S.: Embedding XPATH Queries into SPARQL Queries. In: Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Droop, M., Flarer, M., Groppe, J., Groppe, S., Linnemann, V., Pinggera, J., Santner, F., Schier, M., Schöpf, F., Staffler, H., Zugal, S.: Bringing the XML and Semantic Web Worlds Closer: Transforming XML into RDF and Embedding XPath into SPARQL. In: Filipe, J., Cordeiro, J. (eds.) Enterprise Information Systems. LNBIP, vol. 19, pp. 31–45. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Droop, M., Flarer, M., Groppe, J., Groppe, S., Linnemann, V., Pinggera, J., Santner, F., Schier, M., Schöpf, F., Staffler, H., Zugal, S.: Translating xPath queries into SPARQL queries. In: Meersman, R., Tari, Z. (eds.) OTM-WS 2007, Part I. LNCS, vol. 4805, pp. 9–10. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Akhtar, W., Kopecký, J., Krennwallner, T., Polleres, A.: XSPARQL: Traveling between the XML and RDF Worlds – and Avoiding the XSLT Pilgrimage. In: Bechhofer, S., Hauswirth, M., Hoffmann, J., Koubarakis, M. (eds.) ESWC 2008. LNCS, vol. 5021, pp. 432–447. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Amann, B., Beeri, C., Fundulaki, I., Scholl, M.: Querying XML Sources Using an Ontology-Based Mediator. In: Meersman, R., et al. (eds.) CoopIS 2002, DOA 2002, and ODBASE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2519, Springer, Heidelberg (2002)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Amann, B., Beeri, C., Fundulaki, I., Scholl, M.O.: Ontology-based integration of XML web resources. In: Horrocks, I., Hendler, J. (eds.) ISWC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2342, p. 117. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Christophides, V., Karvounarakis, G., Magkanaraki, A., Plexousakis, D., Tannen, V.: The ICS-FORTH Semantic Web Integration Middleware (SWIM). IEEE Data Eng. Bull. 26(4), 11–18 (2003)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Christophides, V., Karvounarakis, G., Koffina, I., Kokkinidis, G., Magkanaraki, A., Plexousakis, D., Serfiotis, G., Tannen, V.: The ICS-FORTH SWIM: A Powerful Semantic Web Integration Middleware. In: Proc. of SWDB 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koffina, I., Serfiotis, G., Christophides, V., Tannen, V.: Mediating RDF/S Queries to Relational and XML Sources. Int. J. Semantic Web Inf. Syst (IJSWIS) 2(4), 68–91 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Xiao, H., Cruz, I.: Integrating and Exchanging XML Data Using Ontologies. In: Spaccapietra, S., Aberer, K., Cudré-Mauroux, P. (eds.) Journal on Data Semantics VI. LNCS, vol. 4090, pp. 67–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Xiao, H., Cruz, I.: RDF-based metadata management in peer-to- peer systems. In: Proc. of 2nd IST MMGPS Workshop 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cruz, I., Xiao, H., Hsu, F.: Peer-to-Peer Semantic Integration of XML and RDF Data Sources. In: Moro, G., Bergamaschi, S., Aberer, K. (eds.) AP2PC 2004. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3601, pp. 108–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cruz, I., Huiyong, X., Hsu, F.: An Ontology-Based Framework for XML Semantic Integration. In: Proc of IDEAS 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lehti, P., Fankhauser, P.: XML data integration with OWL: Experiences and challenges. In: Proc. of 3rd International Symposium on Applications and the Internet, SAINT 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klein, M.: Interpreting XML via an RDF schema. In: Proc. of Second International Workshop on Electronicy Business Hubs, WEBH 2002 (2002)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Reif, G., Jazayeri, M., Gall, H.: Towards semantic Web Engineering: WEESA-mapping XML schema to ontologies. In: Proc. of WWW 2004 Workshop on Application Design, Development, and Implementation Issues in the Semantic Web (2004)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ferdinand, M., Zirpins, C., Trastour, D.: Lifting XML Schema to OWL. In: Koch, N., Fraternali, P., Wirsing, M. (eds.) ICWE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3140, pp. 354–358. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Garcia, R., Celma, O.: Semantic integration and retrieval of multimedia meta-data. In: Proc. of Fifth International Workshop on Knowledge Markup and Semantic Annotation (2005)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bohring, H., Auer, S.: Mapping XML to OWL Ontologies. In: Leipziger Informatik-Tage 2005, pp. 147–156 (2005)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Battle, S.: Gloze: XML to RDF and back again. In: 2006 Jena User Conference (2006)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rodrigues, T., Rosa, P., Cardoso, J.: Mapping XML to Exiting OWL ontologies. In: International Conference WWW Internet 2006, Murcia, Spain, October 5-8 (2006)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Thuy, P.T.T., Lee, Y.K., Lee, S., Jeong, B.S.: Transforming Valid XML Documents into RDF via RDF Schema. In: International Conference on Next Generation Web Services Practices. IEEE (October 2007)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thuy, P.T.T., Lee, Y.K., Lee, S., Jeong, B.S.: Exploiting XML Schema for Interpreting XML Documents as RDF. In: International Conference on Services Computing SCC 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bedini, I., Gardarin, G., Nguyen, B.: Deriving Ontologies from XML Schema. In: Proc. EDA 2008, vol. B-4, pp. 3–17 (2008)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cruz, C., Nicolle, C.: Ontology Enrichment and Automatic Population from XML Data. In: Proc. of 4th Int. Workshop on Ontology-based Techniques, ODBIS 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berrueta, D., Labra, J.E., Herman, I.: XSLT+SPARQL: Scripting the Semantic Web with SPARQL embedded into XSLT stylesheets. In: Proc. of 4th Workshop on Scripting for the Semantic Web 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thuy, P.T.T., Lee, Y.K., Lee, S.: DTD2OWL: automatic transforming XML documents into OWL ontology. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. Interaction Sciences 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wache, H., Voegele, T., Visser, U., Stuckenschmidt, H., Schuster, G., Neumann, H., Huebner, S.: Ontology-based integration of information - A survey of existing approaches. In: Proc. of Workshop on Ontologies and Information Sharing 2001 (2001)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Noy, N.F.: Semantic Integration: A Survey Of Ontology-Based Approaches. SIGMOD Record 33(4) (2004)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Miller, R.J., Haas, L.M., Hernández, M.: Schema Mapping as Query Discovery. In: Proc. of VLDB 2000 (2000)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Popa, L., Velegrakis, Y., Miller, R.J., Hernández, M.A., Fagin, R.: Translating Web Data. In: Proc. of VLDB 2002 (2000)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yu, C., Popa, L.: Constraint-based XML Query Rewriting for Data Integration. In: Proc. of SIGMOD 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    DeHaan, D., Toman, D., Consens, M., Özsu, T.: A Comprehensive XQuery to SQL Translation using Dynamic Interval Encoding. In: Proc. of SIGMOD 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Thiran, P., Estievenart, F., Hainaut, J.L., Houben, G.J.: A Generic Framework for Extracting XML Data from Legacy Databases. J. Web Eng. (JWE) 4(3) (2005)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kappel, G., Kapsammer, E., Retschitzegger, W.: Integrating XML and Relational Database Systems. World Wide Web (WWWJ) 7(4) (2004)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Krishnamurthy, R., Kaushik, R., Naughton, J.F.: XML-to-SQL Query Translation Literature: The State of the Art and Open Problems. In: Bellahsène, Z., Chaudhri, A.B., Rahm, E., Rys, M., Unland, R. (eds.) XSym 2003. LNCS, vol. 2824, pp. 1–18. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Deutsch, A., Tannen, V.: Reformulation of XML Queries and Constraints. In: Calvanese, D., Lenzerini, M., Motwani, R. (eds.) ICDT 2003. LNCS, vol. 2572, pp. 225–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bohannon, P., Fan, W., Flaster, M., Narayan, P.: Information Preserving XML Schema Embedding. In: Proc. of VLDB 2005 (2005)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Halevy, A., Ives, Z., Mork, P., Tatarinov, I.: Piazza: Data Management Infrastructure for Semantic Web Applications. In: Proc. WWW 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Halevy, A.Y., Ives, Z.G., Suciu, D., Tatarinov, I.: Schema Mediation in Peer Data Management Systems. In: Proc. of ICDE (2003)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tatarinov, I., Halevy, A.: Efficient Query Reformulation in Peer Data Management Systems. In: Proc. of SIGMOD 2004 (2004)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ives, Z., Halevy, A., Mork, P., Tatarinov, I.: Piazza: mediation and integration infrastructure for Semantic Web data. J. Web Sem. (WS) 1(2) (2004)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Arenas, M., Libkin, L.: XMLdata Exchange: Consistency and Query Answering. Journal of ACM (JACM) 55(2) (2008)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Aguilera, V., Cluet, S., Milo, T., Veltri, P., Vodislav, D.: Views in a large-scale XML repository. VLDB Journal 11(3) (2002)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bonifati, A., Chang, E.Q., Ho, T., Lakshmanan, L.V.S., Pottinger, R., Chung, Y.: Schema Mapping and Query Translation in Heterogeneous P2P XML Databases. VLDB Journal 19(2) (2010)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sahoo, S., Halb, W., Hellmann, S., Idehen, K., Thibodeau, T., Auer, S., Sequeda, J., Ezzat, A.: A Survey of Current Approaches for Mapping of Relational Databases to RDF. Technical Report. RDB2RDF W3C Working Group (2009)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Das, S., Sundara, S., Cyganiak, R. (eds.): R2RML: RDB to RDF Mapping Language, W3C Working Draft, October 28 (2010),
  75. 75.
    Sequeda, J., Depena, R., Miranker, D.: Ultrawrap: Using SQL Views for RDB2RDF. In: Proc. of ISWC (2009)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bizer, C., Cyganiak, R.: D2R Server - Publishing Relational Databases on the Semantic Web. In: Proc. of ISWC (2006)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chen, H., Wu, Z., Wang, H., Mao, Y.: RDF/RDFS-based Relational Database Integration. In: Proc. of ICDE (2006)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Blakeley, C.: Mapping Relational Data to RDF with Virtuoso’s RDF Views. OpenLink Software (2007)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zemke, F.: Converting SPARQL to SQL, Technical Report (October 2006),
  80. 80.
    Krishnamoorthy, K., Kumar, R., Dua, S.R.: Converting SPARQL Queries to SQL Queries. Microsoft Corporation patent application,
  81. 81.
    Ma, L., Wang, C., Lu, J., Cao, F., Pan, Y., Yu, Y.: Effective and Efficient Semantic Web Data Management over DB2. In: Proc. of SIGMOD (2008)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chebotko, A., Lub, S., Fotouhib, F.: Semantics preserving SPARQL-to-SQL translation. Data & Knowl. Eng. (DKE) 68(10), 973–1000 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Elliott, B., Cheng, E., Thomas-Ogbuji, C., Ozsoyoglu, Z.M.: A Complete Translation from SPARQL into Efficient SQL. In: Proc. of International Database Engineering & Applications Symposium IDEAS (2009)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cyganiak, R.: A relational algebra for SPARQL. Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Technical Report (2005),
  85. 85.
    Klein, M., Fensel, D., Harmelen, F., Horrocks, I.: The relation between ontologies and XML Schemata. In: Proc. of the Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods (2000)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Perez, J., Arenas, M., Gutierrez, C.: Semantics and Complexity of SPARQL. ACM Trans. Database Syst (TODS) 34(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Makris, K., Bikakis, N., Gioldasis, N., Tsinaraki, C., Christodoulakis, S.: Towards a Mediator Based on OWL and SPARQL. In: Lytras, M.D., Damiani, E., Carroll, J.M., Tennyson, R.D., Avison, D., Naeve, A., Dale, A., Lefrere, P., Tan, F., Sipior, J., Vossen, G. (eds.) WSKS 2009. LNCS, vol. 5736, pp. 326–335. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Makris, K., Gioldasis, N., Bikakis, N., Christodoulakis, S.: Ontology Mapping and SPARQL Rewriting for Querying Federated RDF Data Sources. In: Proc. of ODBASE (2010)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Makris, K., Gioldasis, N., Bikakis, N., Christodoulakis, S.: SPARQL Rewriting for Query Mediation over Mapped Ontologies. Technical Report 2010 MUSIC/TUC (2010),
  90. 90.
    Bikakis, N., Gioldasis, N., Tsinaraki, C., Christodoulakis, S.: Querying XML Data with SPARQL. In: Bhowmick, S.S., Küng, J., Wagner, R. (eds.) DEXA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5690, pp. 372–381. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    ikakis N., Tsinaraki C., Gioldasis N., Christodoulakis S.: The SPARQL2XQuery Framework. Technical Report,

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikos Bikakis
    • 1
  • Chrisa Tsinaraki
    • 2
  • Nektarios Gioldasis
    • 2
  • Ioannis Stavrakantonakis
    • 2
  • Stavros Christodoulakis
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for the Management of Information Systems, ”Athena” Research CenterNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Lab. of Distributed Multimedia Information Systems & ApplicationsTechnical University of CreteChaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations