Class-Modular, Class-Escape and Points-to Analysis for Object-Oriented Languages

  • Alexander Herz
  • Kalmer Apinis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7226)


We present a combined class-modular points-to and class-escape analysis that allows to analyze class declarations even if no information about the code that invokes the class’s methods is available as is the case for e.g. shared libraries. Any standard whole-program or summary-based points-to analysis can be plugged into our framework and thus be transformed into a class-modular, class-escape and points-to analysis. The analysis framework uses the flow restrictions imposed by the access modifiers (e.g. private, public and protected in Java) to find all fields that may be modified by code that is not part of the class declaration. These fields escape the class. Unlike method-based summaries instantiated with an unknown context, our analysis framework can give detailed points-to information for non-escaping fields. In addition, the knowledge of which fields belong to the region that does not escape a class can be exploited to perform other analysis like class-modular object in-lining [6] more efficiently or enable the automatic inference of class invariants [10]. We prove the soundness of the analysis and present a set of benchmarks showing that the analysis is suitable to analyze real world code and that more than 75% of the fields from the benchmarked classes are identified as non-escaping.


Abstract Semantic Automatic Inference External Code Class Declaration Escape Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Andersen, L.: Program analysis and specialization for the C programming language. Tech. rep., 94-19, University of Copenhagen (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blanchet, B.: Escape analysis for object-oriented languages: application to Java. SIGPLAN Not. 34, 20–34 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boyapati, C., Liskov, B., Shrira, L.: Ownership types for object encapsulation. SIGPLAN Not. 38, 213–223 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheng, B.C., Hwu, W.M.W.: Modular interprocedural pointer analysis using access paths: design, implementation, and evaluation. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2000 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, PLDI 2000, pp. 57–69. ACM, New York (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cousot, P., Cousot, R.: Modular Static Program Analysis. In: Horspool, R.N. (ed.) CC 2002. LNCS, vol. 2304, pp. 159–179. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dolby, J., Chien, A.: An automatic object inlining optimization and its evaluation. SIGPLAN Not 35(5), 345–357 (2000), aCM ID: 349344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herz, A., Apinis, K.: Class-Modular, Class-Escape and Points-to Analysis (Proof). Tech. rep., TUM-I1202, Technische Universität München (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Horwitz, S., Shapiro, M.: Modular Pointer Analysis. Tech. rep., 98-1378, University of Wisconsin–Madison (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lattner, C., Adve, V.: Llvm: a compilation framework for lifelong program analysis transformation. In: International Symposium on Code Generation and Optimization, CGO 2004, pp. 75–86 (2004)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Logozzo, F.: Automatic Inference of Class Invariants. In: Steffen, B., Levi, G. (eds.) VMCAI 2004. LNCS, vol. 2937, pp. 211–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Open Source 3D Graphics Engine OGRE,
  12. 12.
    Porat, S., Biberstein, M., Koved, L., Mendelson, B.: Automatic detection of immutable fields in Java. In: Proceedings of the 2000 Conference of the Centre for Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research, CASCON 2000, p. 10. IBM Press (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rountev, A.: Component-Level Dataflow Analysis. In: Heineman, G.T., Crnković, I., Schmidt, H.W., Stafford, J.A., Ren, X.-M., Wallnau, K. (eds.) CBSE 2005. LNCS, vol. 3489, pp. 82–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rountev, A., Ryder, B.G.: Points-to and Side-Effect Analyses for Programs Built with Precompiled Libraries. In: Wilhelm, R. (ed.) CC 2001. LNCS, vol. 2027, pp. 20–36. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Seidl, H., Vene, V., Müller-Olm, M.: Global invariants for analyzing multithreaded applications. Proc. of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Phys., Math. 52(4), 413–436 (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seidl, H., Vojdani, V.: Region Analysis for Race Detection. In: Palsberg, J., Su, Z. (eds.) SAS 2009. LNCS, vol. 5673, pp. 171–187. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steensgaard, B.: Points-to analysis in almost linear time. In: Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, POPL 1996, pp. 32–41. ACM, New York (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stroustrup, B.: The C++ programming language, vol. 3. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1997)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sutter, H., Alexandrescu, A.: C++ coding standards: 101 rules, guidelines, and best practices. Addison-Wesley Professional (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vojdani, V., Vene, V.: Goblint: Path-sensitive data race analysis. Annales Univ. Sci. Budapest., Sect. Comp. 30, 141–155 (2009)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whaley, J., Rinard, M.: Compositional pointer and escape analysis for Java programs. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Object-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications, OOPSLA 1999, pp. 187–206. ACM, New York (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wimmer, C., Mössenböck, H.: Automatic feedback-directed object inlining in the java hotspot(tm) virtual machine. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Virtual Execution Environments, VEE 2007, pp. 12–21. ACM, New York (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Herz
    • 1
  • Kalmer Apinis
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Informatik IITechnische Universität MünchenGarching b. MünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations