A Relaxation-Based Heuristic Approach for the Mixed-Integer Evacuation Model

  • Sarah Bretschneider
Part of the Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems book series (LNE, volume 659)


A basic urban evacuation model is presented in  Chap. 3 with the extensions of the possibility of waiting and the reassignment of the traffic routing only to one-way streets. In this chapter a heuristic solution approach will be presented for the urban evacuation model which relaxes some constraints and integrality in a first step. In a following step based on a solution of the relaxation, feasibility is generated for the considered urban evacuation model. We will consider the two-way case (compare Bretschneider and Kimms 2011) and the one-way case. The two-way case is more difficult to handle, so it is considered first. The one-way case can be derived from the two-way case. The approach will be explained for the urban evacuation model without waiting presented in Sect. 3.2 with the objective function (3.1) that minimizes of the average evacuation time. For the variation of the evacuation model with waiting on arcs the relaxation approach can be applied analogously.


Evacuation Model Grid Network Adjustment Algorithm Adjustment Approach Neighboring Intersection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bretschneider S, Kimms A (2011) A basic mathematical model for evacuation problems in urban areas. Transport Res A Pol Pract 45:523–539Google Scholar
  2. Hamacher HW, Tufekci S (1987) On the use of lexicographic min cost flows in evacuation modeling. Nav Res Logist 34:487–503Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Bretschneider
    • 1
  1. 1.SolingenGermany

Personalised recommendations