Advertisement

Template-Based Controller Synthesis for Timed Systems

  • Bernd Finkbeiner
  • Hans-Jörg Peter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7214)

Abstract

We present an effective controller synthesis method for real-time systems modeled as timed automata with safety requirements. Under the realistic assumption of partial observability, the problem is undecidable in general, and prohibitively expensive (2ExpTime-complete) if a bound on the granularity of the controller is set in advance. We investigate the synthesis of controllers from templates, given as timed automata with parametric control structure. Template-based synthesis is significantly cheaper (PSpace-complete) than standard synthesis and produces much simpler controllers. We present an efficient symbolic synthesis algorithm based on automatic abstraction refinement and report on encouraging experimental results from an implementation in the timed verification and synthesis tool synthia.

Keywords

Model Check Synthesis Algorithm Controller Synthesis Partial Observability Time Automaton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Altisen, K., Tripakis, S.: Tools for controller synthesis of timed systems. In: 2nd Workshop on Real-Time Tools, RT-TOOLS (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alur, R., Dill, D.L.: A theory of timed automata. Theoretical Computer Science 126(2), 183–235 (1994)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alur, R., Henzinger, T.A., Vardi, M.Y.: Parametric real-time reasoning. In: STOC, pp. 592–601 (1993)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asarin, E., Maler, O., Pnueli, A., Sifakis, J.: Controller synthesis for timed automata. In: Lafay, J.-F. (ed.) Proc. 5th IFAC Conference on System Structure and Control, pp. 469–474. Elsevier (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Behrmann, G., Cougnard, A., David, A., Fleury, E., Larsen, K.G., Lime, D.: UPPAAL-Tiga: Time for Playing Games! In: Damm, W., Hermanns, H. (eds.) CAV 2007. LNCS, vol. 4590, pp. 121–125. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bouyer, P., D’Souza, D., Madhusudan, P., Petit, A.: Timed Control with Partial Observability. In: Hunt Jr., W.A., Somenzi, F. (eds.) CAV 2003. LNCS, vol. 2725, pp. 180–192. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bryant, R.E.: Graph-based algorithms for boolean function manipulation. IEEE Trans. Computers 35(8), 677–691 (1986)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cassez, F., David, A., Fleury, E., Larsen, K.G., Lime, D.: Efficient on-the-Fly Algorithms for the Analysis of Timed Games. In: Abadi, M., de Alfaro, L. (eds.) CONCUR 2005. LNCS, vol. 3653, pp. 66–80. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cassez, F., David, A., Larsen, K.G., Lime, D., Raskin, J.-F.: Timed control with observation based and stuttering invariant strategies. In: [22], pp. 192–206Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chatain, T., David, A., Larsen, K.G.: Playing games with timed games. In: Giua, A., Silva, M., Zaytoon, J. (eds.) Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems (ADHS 2009), Zaragoza, Spain (September 2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dill, D.L.: Timing Assumptions and Verification of Finite-State Concurrent Systems. In: Sifakis, J. (ed.) CAV 1989. LNCS, vol. 407, pp. 197–212. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D’Souza, D., Madhusudan, P.: Timed Control Synthesis for External Specifications. In: Alt, H., Ferreira, A. (eds.) STACS 2002. LNCS, vol. 2285, pp. 571–582. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ehlers, R.: Symbolic Bounded Synthesis. In: Touili, T., Cook, B., Jackson, P. (eds.) CAV 2010. LNCS, vol. 6174, pp. 365–379. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ehlers, R., Mattmüller, R., Peter, H.-J.: Combining Symbolic Representations for Solving Timed Games. In: Chatterjee, K., Henzinger, T.A. (eds.) FORMATS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6246, pp. 107–121. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Filiot, E., Jin, N., Raskin, J.-F.: An Antichain Algorithm for LTL Realizability. In: Bouajjani, A., Maler, O. (eds.) CAV 2009. LNCS, vol. 5643, pp. 263–277. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Finkbeiner, B., Schewe, S.: SMT-based synthesis of distributed systems. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Automated Formal Methods (AFM 2007), November 6, pp. 69–76. ACM Press, Atlanta (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henzinger, T.A., Kopke, P.W.: Discrete-time control for rectangular hybrid automata. Theoretical Computer Science 221(1-2), 369–392 (1999)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hune, T., Romijn, J., Stoelinga, M., Vaandrager, F.W.: Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata. In: Margaria, T., Yi, W. (eds.) TACAS 2001. LNCS, vol. 2031, pp. 189–203. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larsen, K.G., Behrmann, G., Skou, A.: Exercises for Uppaal, http://www.cs.aau.dk/~bnielsen/TOV08/ESV04/exercises
  20. 20.
    Lustig, Y., Vardi, M.Y.: Synthesis from Component Libraries. In: de Alfaro, L. (ed.) FOSSACS 2009. LNCS, vol. 5504, pp. 395–409. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maler, O., Pnueli, A., Sifakis, J.: On the Synthesis of Discrete Controllers for Timed Systems (An Extended Abstract). In: Mayr, E.W., Puech, C. (eds.) STACS 1995. LNCS, vol. 900, pp. 229–242. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Namjoshi, K.S., Yoneda, T., Higashino, T., Okamura, Y. (eds.): ATVA 2007. LNCS, vol. 4762. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peter, H.-J., Ehlers, R., Mattmüller, R.: Synthia: Verification and Synthesis for Timed Automata. In: Gopalakrishnan, G., Qadeer, S. (eds.) CAV 2011. LNCS, vol. 6806, pp. 649–655. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Peter, H.-J., Mattmüller, R.: Component-based abstraction refinement for timed controller synthesis. In: Baker, T.P. (ed.) IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp. 364–374. IEEE Computer Society (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schewe, S., Finkbeiner, B.: Bounded synthesis. In: [22], pp. 474–488Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thomas, W.: On the Synthesis of Strategies in Infinite Games. In: Mayr, E.W., Puech, C. (eds.) STACS 1995. LNCS, vol. 900, pp. 1–13. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Finkbeiner
    • 1
  • Hans-Jörg Peter
    • 1
  1. 1.Reactive Systems GroupUniversität des SaarlandesGermany

Personalised recommendations