Introduction to Isotope Effect

  • Vladimir G. Plekhanov
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Physics book series (SpringerBriefs in Physics)


An atom consists of an extremely small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. Although typically the nucleus is less than one ten-thounsandth the size of the atom, the nucleus contains more than 99.9% of the mass of the atom. Atomic nucleus is the small, central part of an atom consisting of A-Nucleons, Z-Protons, and N-Neutrons . The atomic mass of the nucleus, A, is equal to Z + N. A given element can have many different isotopes, which differ from one another by the number of neutrons contained in the nuclei.


Mixed Crystal Exciton State Free Exciton Longitudinal Optical Phonon Coherent Potential Approximation 
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Authors and Affiliations

  • Vladimir G. Plekhanov
    • 1
  1. 1. Mathematics and Physics DepartmentComputer Science CollegeTallinnEstonia

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