Systemic Dysregulation in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Jianren Gu
  • Xianghuo He
  • Zhenfeng Zhang
  • Weijie Guo
  • Zhiao Chen
  • Yingjun Zhao


Cancer is an ancient disease of multi-cellular organisms acquired in the history of evolution. For more than one century, cancer was defined as a disease of autonomous, abnormal growth of cells from an organ or tissue. Therefore, the majority of research and resources were focused on the cancer, especially cancer cells. In recent decades, an increasing body of evidence has emerged to indicate that carcinogenesis and cancer progressions involve systemic dysregulation, which may be the important driving force in cancer development as well as its progression. As we have emphasized in Chapter 1, we defined cancer as a systems disease which is characterized by abnormal cell growth in a defined tissue or organ and progressive systemic dysregulation.


Hepatocellular Carcinoma Glioma Cell Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Glutamate Transporter Cholinergic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianren Gu
    • 1
  • Xianghuo He
    • 1
  • Zhenfeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Weijie Guo
    • 1
  • Zhiao Chen
    • 1
  • Yingjun Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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