Solid Waste and Livelihood

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
  • Diganta Bhusan Das
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Livelihood is nothing but the activity to sustain day to day life. It varies according to different social, ecological, geographical, climatic contexts. It also depends on resources, social relationships, risks, uncertainties, changing life style, epidemics, market risk, inflation, and competition.


Solid Waste Waste Management Informal Sector Truck Driver Waste Picker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. ABS (Australian Bureau Statistics) (2011) Waste Management Services. <> page last updated 10 June 2011. Accessed 4 Feb 2012
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2008) 8226.0—Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services, Australia, 2006-07. As cited in Access economics, 2009: Employment in waste management and recycling <>. Accessed 15 Feb 2012
  3. Akiko S, Mitsuo Y (2011) Internalization of informal sector into formal urban waste management in low-income countries. In: Proceedings of 2011 World Congress of International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), 17–20 Oct 2011, EXCO Daegu, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali SM, Cotton A, Coad A (1993) Informal sector waste recycling. In: Paper presented at the 19th WEDC Conference on Water, Sanitation, Environment and Development Accra, Ghana, pp 153–155Google Scholar
  5. APO (Asian Productivty Organisation) (2007) Solid waste management: issues and challenges in Asia, edited by the Environmental Management Centre, Mumbai, India, Asian Productivity OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  6. Anne S, Justine A, van de Klundert A (2006) Waste pickers: poor victims or waste management professionals? Solid waste, health and the Millennium Development Goals, CWG—WASH Workshop, 1–5 Feb 2006in Kolkata, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker KF (2004) Fact finding study—the informal economy, SIDAGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertram M, Graedel TE, Rechberger H, Spatari S (2002) The contemporary European copper cycle: waste management subsystem. Ecol Econ 42(1–2):43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BLS(Bureau of labor statistics) (2012) Waste Management and Remediation Services: NAICS 562, Industry ar a glance. Data extracted on: 17 Feb 2012
  10. Brigden K, Labunska I, Santillo D, Johnston P (2008) Chemical contamination at e-waste recycling and disposal sites in Accra and Korforidua, Ghana. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note. Greenpeace International, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. Chikarmane P, Deshpande M, Narayan L (2001) Report of scrap collectors, Scrap Traders and Recycling Enterprises in Pune City. ILO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  12. DSNC(Department of Sanitation Newyork City) NA (2012) Refuse Collection and Recycle. <> downloaded on 24 Jan 2012
  13. ECDGE(European Commission Directorate General- Environment) (2000) Study on Investment and Employment Related to EU Policy on Air, Water and Waste, Executive SummaryGoogle Scholar
  14. Edward WR (2001) U.S. Solid Waste Industry, The: how big is it?. <>. Accessed 3 Feb 2012
  15. Environment Victoria (2009) ‘Victoria—the Green Jobs State: Seizing the Opportunities.’ As cited in Access economics, 2009: Employment in waste management and recycling. <>. Accessed 15 Feb 2012
  16. Esakku S, Swaminathan A, Parthiba Karhtikeyan O et al. (2007) Municipal Solid Waste Management in Chennai city, India. In: Proceedings Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita Di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 1–5 Oct 2007Google Scholar
  17. Friends of Earth (2010) More jobs less waste potential for job creation Through Higher Rate of Recycling in the UK and EUGoogle Scholar
  18. Hardoy JE, Mitlin D, Satterwaite D (1992) Environmental problems in third world cities. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Hicks C, Dietmar R, Eugster M (2005) The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China—legislative and market responses. Environ Impact Assess Rev 25:459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. HSE (Health and Safety Executive) (2004) Mapping health and safety standards in the UK waste industryGoogle Scholar
  21. IL&FS Ecosmart, NA: City Development Plan, Delhi. <> downloaded on 10 Oct 2012
  22. ISRI (Institute of Scrap Recycling Inc), NA (2012) Jobs in the U.S. Scrap Recycling Industry. <> downloaded 27 Jan 2012
  23. JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency), 2004: Study on Solid-Waste Management for the Kathmandu Valley: Interim Report (1). Kathmandu: Japan International Cooperation Agency and His Majesty’s Government of NepalGoogle Scholar
  24. Kamala S, Shalini S, Roopa M, Waste pickers bag ground note, WIEGO Law Pilot Project on the Informal Economy. Last accessed on 6 April 2011
  25. Karmayog last accessed on 6.4.2011
  26. Kojima M, Yoshida A, Sasaki S (2009) Difficulties in applying extended producer responsibility policies in developing countries: case studies in e-waste recycling in China and Thailand. J Mater Cycles Waste Manage 11(3):263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lars MJ, Gabriela B (1999) Observations of solid waste landfills in developing countries: Africa, Asia, and Latin America. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. Medina M (1997) ‘Informal recycling and collection of solid wastes in developing countries: issues and opportunities.’ UNU/IAS Working Paper No. 24. The United Nations University/Institute of Advanced Studies, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  29. Maria S, Frank S-L, Milen D, Robin B, Susan W, Roy W (2010) Ship breaking and recycling industry ship breaking and recycling industry. World Bank, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  30. Melosi M (1981) Garbage in the cities, refuse, reform and environment, 1880–1980. College Station, Texas A&M Press, TexasGoogle Scholar
  31. Medina M (2000) Scavenger cooperatives in Asia and Latin America. Res Conserv Recycl 31:51–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Medina M (2007) The world’s scavengers: salvaging for sustainable consumption and production. AltaMira Press, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  33. Nazrul I, Salma AS (2004) Solid waste management and the urban poor in Dhaka, Forum on Urban Infrastructure and Public Service Delivery for the Urban Poor Regional Focus. Asia, New Delhi, 24–25 June 2004Google Scholar
  34. Pieter van B, Edwin S, Ajit M, (1996) The informal sector and waste paper recovery in Bombay, International Institute for Environment and Development, London; Institute for Environmental Studies, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  35. Poornima C, Lakshmi N (2009) Rising from the waste—organising wastepickers in India, Thailand and the Philippines, Committee for Asian WomenGoogle Scholar
  36. Rachel S, Chasca T (2003) Hidden livelihoods? Natural Resource-Dependent Livelihoods and Urban Development Policy, Overseas Development InstituteGoogle Scholar
  37. Remanufacturing Institute (2003) OPI Estimate of 2003 Annual US Expenditures on Remanufacturing/Overhaul/RebuildGoogle Scholar
  38. Renbi B, Mardina S (2002) The practice and challenges of solid waste management in Singapore. Waste Manage (Oxford) 22:557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reynals C (2002) De Cartoneros a Recuperadores Urbanos. Respuestas de la Sociedad Civil a la Emegencia Socia: Brasil y ArgentinaGoogle Scholar
  40. Richard JP, Wolfville NS (2002) Study on Solid Waste Management Options for Africa, Project Report, Final Draft Version, African Development BankGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosario A (2004) Reduction of child labour in the waste picking sector, India: review and findings of an evaluative field study in Bangalore and KolkataGoogle Scholar
  42. Henry RK, Yongsheng Z, Jun D (2006) Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries—Kenyan case study. Waste Manage (Oxford) 26(2006):92–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Saskia B, Jasper K, van der Ree K (2000) Both sides of the bridge: public-private partnership for sustainable employment creatio. In: Waste Management, Dar Es Salaam, Planning for Sustainable and Integrated Solid Waste Management, Manila, The Philippines, 18–21 Sept 2000Google Scholar
  44. Schneider F (1998) Further empirical results of the size of the shadow economy of 17 OECD countries over time. Discussion Paper Department of Economics, University of Linz, Linz, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  45. Tong X, Lifset R, Lindhqvist T (2004) Extended producer responsibility in China: where is ‘‘best practice’’? J Ind Ecol 8(4):6–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. UNEP, ILO, IOE, ITUC (2008) September green jobs: towards decent work in a sustainable, low carbon worldGoogle Scholar
  47. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) and BRR (Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi) NAD-Nias, Government of Indonesia, NA: Tsunami Recovery Waste Management Programme (TRWMP) NAD-NiasGoogle Scholar
  48. USEPA (2002) Recycling is working in the United States, Jan 2002Google Scholar
  49. USEPA (2008) Municipal Solid Waste in the United States, 2007 Facts and FiguresGoogle Scholar
  50. UN-HABITAT (2010) Solid waste management in the world’s cities—Water and sanitation in the world’s cities, Earthscan publishers, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Ursula H, Karin S (2011) Heterogeneity and conflict—the waste sector in Austria, walqing social partnership series 2011.2Google Scholar
  52. Williams E (2005) International activities on E-waste and guidelines for future work. In: Proceedings of the third workshop on material cycles and waste management in Asia, Dec 2004, Tsukuba, JapanGoogle Scholar
  53. Xing GH, Chan JKY, Leung AOW, Wu SC, Wong MH (2009) Environmental impact and human exposure to PCBs in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in China. Environ Int 35(1):76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhu M, Fan X, Alberto R, He Q, Federico V, Liu B, Alessandro G, Liu Y (2009) Municipal solid waste management in Pudong New Area, China, Waste Management 29(2009): 1227–1233Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomedical WasteKarnataka State Pollution Control BoardBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Chemical Engineering DepartmentLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK

Personalised recommendations