Advertisement

Fetal Imaging

  • María I. Martínez-León
Chapter
Part of the Imaging for Clinicians book series (IMAGCLIN, volume 1)

Abstract

A 20-week gestation fetus was found to have severe microcephaly on ultrasound study. Family history documented in our hospital included a 2-year-old sister with microcephaly and severe developmental delay. In view of the extremely unfavorable prognosis, pregnancy was interrupted.

Keywords

Arachnoid Cyst Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Interhemispheric Fissure Posterior Fossa Syndrome Severe Developmental Delay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

Case 1: Fetal Microlissencephaly

  1. Garel C (2004) MRI of the fetal brain: normal development and cerebral pathologies, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdel Razek AA, Kandell AY, Elsorogy LG, Elmongy A, Basett AA (2009) Disorders of cortical formation: MR imaging features. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30:4–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barkovich J, Raybaud C (2004) Neuroimaging in disorders of cortical development. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 14:231–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM, Barr RM et al (1998) Microlissencephaly: a heterogeneous malformation of cortical development. Neuropediatrics 29:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dobyns WB, Truwit CL, Ross ME et al (1999) Differences in the gyral pattern distinguish chromosome 17-linked and X-liked lissencephaly. Neurology 53:270–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gadadoia A, Gupta P, Sharma R, Kumar S (2011) Prenatal diagnosis of lissencephaly: a case report. J Clin Ultrasound 39:91–92Google Scholar
  7. Gaitanis J, Walsh C (2004) Genetics of disorders of cortical development. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 14:219–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ghai S, Fong K, Tai A, et al (2006) Prenatal US and MR imaging findings of lissencephaly: review of fetal cerebral sulcal development. Radiographics 26:389–406Google Scholar
  9. Hirose M, Haginoya K, Yokoyama H et al (2011) Progressive atrophy of the cerebrum in 2 Japanese sisters with microcephaly with simplified gyri and enlarged extraaxial space. Neuropediatrics 42(4):163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Sztriha L, Al-Gazali LI, Várady E et al (1999) Autosomal recessive micrencephaly with simplified gyral pattern, abnormal myelination and arthrogryposis. Neuropediatrics 30:141–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Sztriha L, Dawodu A, Gururaj A et al (2004) Microcephaly associated with abnormal gyral pattern. Neuropediatrics 35:346–352PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 2: Alobar Holoprosencephaly

  1. Barkovich AJ (2005) Congenital malformations of the brain and skull. In: Barkovich AJ (ed) Pediatric neuroimaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 291–439Google Scholar
  2. Dill P, Poretti A, Boltshauser E, Huisman T (2009) Fetal magnetic resonance imaging in midline malformations of the central nervous system and review of the literature. J Neuroradiol 36:138–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hahn JS, Barnes PD (2010) Neuroimaging advances in holoprosencephaly: refining the spectrum of the midline malformation. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 154C:120–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hsieh TY, Yu CH, Kuo PL, Chang FM (2006) Prenatal diagnosis of alobar holoprosencephaly with cystic hygroma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 45:146–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Malinger G, Lev D, Kidron D, Heredia F, Hershkovitz R, Lerman-Sagie T (2005) Differential diagnosis in fetuses with absent septum pellucidum. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 25:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Marcorelles P, Laquerriere A (2010) Neuropathology of holoprosencephaly. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 154C:109–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Pulitzer SB, Simon EM, Crombleholme TM, Golden JA (2004) Prenatal MR findings of the middle interhemispheric variant of holoprosencephaly. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25:1034–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sawhney S, Machado L, Jain R (2008) Prenatal MRI image of a fetus with semilobar holoprosencephaly. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 8:93–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Simon EM, Barkovich AJ (2001) Holoprosencephaly: new concepts. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 9:149–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Volpe P, Campobasso G, De Robertis V, Rembouskos G (2009) Disorders of prosencephalic development. Prenat Diagn 29:340–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wong A, Bilaniuk LT, Ng KK, Chang YL, Chao AS (2005) Lobar holoprosencephaly: prenatal MR diagnosis with postnatal MR correlation. Prenat Diagn 25:296–299PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 3: Fetal Arachnoid Cyst

  1. McGahan JP, Pilu G, Nyberg DA (2003) Cerebral malformations. In: Nyberg DA, McGahan JP, Pretorius DH, Pilu G (eds) Diagnostic imaging of fetal anomalies. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 381–420Google Scholar
  2. Al-Holou WN, Yew Ay, Boomsaad ZE, Garton HJ, Murasko KM, Maher CO (2010) Prevalence and natural history of arachnoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 5:578–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth TN, Timmons C, Shapiro K, Rollins NK (2004) Pre- and postnatal MR imaging of hypothalamic hamartomas associated with arachnoid cysts. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 25(7):1283–1285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. El-Ghandour NMF (2011) Endoscopic treatment of suprasellar arachnoid cysts in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 8:6–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gelabert M (2004) Intracranial arachnoid cysts [in Spanish]. Rev Neurol 39(12):1161–1166Google Scholar
  6. Girard N, Raybaud C, Gambarelli D, Figarella-Branger D (2001) Fetal brain MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 9:19–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hosny IA, Elghawabi HS (2010) Ultrafast MRI of the fetus: an increasingly important tool in prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies. Magn Reson Imaging 28(10):1431–1439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Osborn AG, Preece MT (2006) Intracranial cysts: radiologic-pathologic correlation and imaging approach. Radiology 239:650–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Prayer D, Brugger PC, Prayer L (2004) Fetal MRI: techniques and protocols. Pediatr Radiol 34:685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Shim KW, Lee YH, Park EK, Park YS, Choi JU, Kim DS (2009) Treatment options for arachnoid cysts. Childs Nerv Syst 25:1459–1466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Woodward PJ, Sohaey R, Kennedy A, Koeller KK (2005) From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 25(1):215–241Google Scholar

Case 4: Dandy-Walker Malformation

  1. Blaser SI (2007) Dandy Walker spectrum. In: Barkovich AJ (ed) Diagnostic imaging: pediatric neuroradiology. Amirsys, Salt Lake City, pp 22–25, Section I:4Google Scholar
  2. Adamsbaum C (2005) MRI of the fetal posterior fossa. Pediatr Radiol 35:124–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernard JP, Moscoso G, Renier D, Ville Y (2001) Cystic malformations of the posterior fossa. Prenat Diagn 21:1064–1069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Calabrò F, Arcuri T, Jinkins JR (2000) Blake’s pouch cyst: an entity within the Dandy-Walker continuum. Neuroradiology 42:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Epelman M, Daneman A, Blaser SI, Ortiz-Neira C, Konen O (2006) Differential diagnosis of intracranial cystic lesions at head US: correlation with CT and MR imaging. Radiographics 26:173–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Guibaud L (2004) Practical approach to prenatal posterior fossa abnormalities using MRI. Pediatr Radiol 34:700–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Klein O, Pierre-Kahn A, Boddaert N, Parisot D, Brunelle F (2003) Dandy-Walker malformation: prenatal diagnosis and prognosis. Childs Nerv Syst 19:484–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lavanya T, Cohen M, Gandhi SV, Farrell T, Whitby EH (2008) Case report: Dandy-Walker variant: a multidisciplinary approach for accurate diagnosis. Br J Radiol 81:242–245Google Scholar
  9. Sanz-Cortes M, Raga F, Leon JL, Sniderman A, Bonilla-Musoles F (2007) MRI and multiplanar 3D ultrasound compared in the prenatal assessment of enlarged posterior fossa. J Perinat Med 35:422–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Sasaki-Adams D, Elbabaa SK, Jewells V, Carter L, Campbell JW, Ritter AM (2008) The Dandy–Walker variant: a case series of 24 pediatric patients and evaluation of associated anomalies, incidence of hydrocephalus, and developmental outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2:194–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Wong AM, Bilaniuk LT, Zimmerman RA, Liu PL (2012) Prenatal MR imaging of Dandy-Walker complex: midline sagittal area analysis. Eur J Radiol 81(1):e26–e30. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2010.11.003 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 5: Vein of Galein Aneurysmal Malformation

  1. Lasjaunias P (1997) Vascular diseases in neonates, infants and children. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal malformation. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 67–202Google Scholar
  2. Sheth RD (2010) Vein of Galen malformation. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1179888. Accessed 2 Oct 2011
  3. Chen M-Y, Liu H-M, Weng W-C (2010) Neonate with severe heart failure related to vein of Galen malformation. Pediatr Neonatol 51:245–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. De Koning TJ, Gooskens R, Veenhoven R, Meijboom EJ, Jansen GH, Lasjaunias P et al (1997) Arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen in three neonates: emphasis on associated early ischaemic brain damage. Eur J Pediatr 156:228–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Golombek SG, Ally S, Woolf PK (2004) A newborn with cardiac failure secondary to a large vein of Galen malformation. South Med J 97:516–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hoang S, Choudhri O, Edwards M, Guzman R (2009) Vein of Galen malformation. Neurosurg Focus 27:E8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Huisman TAGM, Singhi S (2010) Non-invasive imaging of intracranial pediatric vascular lesions. Childs Nerv Syst 26:1275–1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalra V, Malhotra A (2010) Fetal MR diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. Pediatr Radiol 40(Suppl 1):S155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Lasjaunias PL, Cheng SM, Sachet M, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Garcia-Monaco R (2006) The management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Neurosurgery 59:S184–S194; discussion S3–S13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lylyk P, Vinuela F, Dion JE, Duckwiler G, Guglielmi G, Peacock W et al (1993) Therapeutic alternatives for vein of Galen vascular malformations. J Neurosurg 78:438–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Raybaud CA, Strother CM, Hald JK (1989) Aneurysms of the vein of Galen: embryonic considerations and anatomical features relating to the pathogenesis of the malformation. Neuroradiology 31:109–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Squires LA, Thomas S, Betz BW, Cottingham S (1998) Vein of Galen malformation with diencephalic syndrome: a clinical pathologic report. J Child Neurol 13:575–577PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 6: Fetal Cerebral Ventriculomegaly

  1. Sohaey R, Filipek MS (2005) Mild ventriculomegaly. In: Woodward PJ, Kennedy A, Sohaey R, Byrne JLB, Oh KY, Puchalsk MD (eds) Diagnostic imaging obstetric, 1st edn. Amirsys Inc., Salt Lake City, pp 2–26Google Scholar
  2. Almog B, Gamzu R, Achiron R, Fainaru O, Zalel Y (2003) Fetal lateral ventricular width: what should be its upper limits? A prospective cohort study and reanalysis of the current and previous data. J Ultrasound Med 22:39–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardoza JD, Goldstein RB, Filly RA (1988) Exclusion of fetal ventriculomegaly with a single measurement: the width of the lateral ventricular atrium. Radiology 169:711–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gaglioti P, Oberto M, Todros T (2009) The significance of fetal ventriculomegaly: etiology, short- and long-term outcomes. Prenat Diagn 29:381–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Garel C, Alberti C (2006) Coronal measurement of the fetal lateral ventricles: comparison between ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27:23–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghai S, Fong KW, Toi A, Chitayat D, Pantazi S, Blaser S (2006) Prenatal US and MR imaging findings of lissencephaly: review of fetal cerebral sulcal development. Radiographics 26:389–405Google Scholar
  7. Glenn OA (2010) MR of fetal brain. Pediatr Radiol 40:68–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Guibaud L (2009) Contribution of fetal cerebral MRI for diagnosis of structural anomalies. Prenat Diagn 29:420–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. ISUOG (2007) Sonographic examination of the fetal central nervous system: guidelines for performing the ‘basic examination’ and the ‘fetal neurosonogram’. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:109–116Google Scholar
  10. Jaspan T (2008) New concepts on posterior fossa malformations. Pediatr Radiol 38(Suppl 3):S409–S414, 98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Salomon LJ, Garel C (2007) Magnetic resonance imaging examination of fetal brain. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:1019–1032PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 7: Bronchial Atresia

  1. Prayer D (2011) Fetal MRI, 1st edn. Springer, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Biyyam DR, Chapman T, Ferguson MR, Deutsch G, Dighe MK (2010) Congenital lung abnormalities: embryologic features, prenatal diagnosis, and postnatal radiologic pathologic correlation. Radiographics 30:1721–1738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cannie M, Jani J, De Keyzer F, Van Kerkhove F, Meersschaert J, Lewi L et al (2008) Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal lung: a pictorial essay. Eur Radiol 18:1364–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Coakley FV, Lopoo JB, Lu Y et al (2000) Volumetric assessment of normal and hypoplastic fetal lungs by prenatal single-shot RARE MR imaging. Radiology 216:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Daltro P, Werner H, Gasparetto TD, Cortes R, Rodrigues L, Marchiori E et al (2010) Congenital chest malformations: a multimodality approach with emphasis on fetal MR imaging. Radiographics 30:385–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhingsa R, Coakley FV, Albanese CT, Filly RA, Goldstein R (2003) Prenatal sonography and MR imaging of pulmonary sequestration. AJR Am J Roentgenol 180:433–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Keller TM, Rake A, Michel SCA, Seifert B, Wisser J, Marincek B et al (2004) MR assessment of fetal lung development using lung volumes and signal intensities. Eur Radiol 14:984–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kocaoğlu M, Frush DP, Uğurel MS, Somuncu I (2010) Bronchopulmonary foregut malformations presenting as mass lesions in children: spectrum of imaging findings. Diagn Interv Radiol 16:153–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Levine D, Barnewolt CE, Mehta TS, Trop I, Estroff J, Wong G (2003) Fetal thoracic abnormalities: MR imaging. Radiology 228:379–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Newman B (2006) Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies. Pediatr Radiol 36:773–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Victoria T, Johnson AM, Chauvin NA, Kramer SS, Epelman M (2011) Fetal MRI of common non-CNS abnormalities: a review. Appl Radiol 40:8–17Google Scholar

Case 8: Fetal Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

  1. Flake AW (2000) The fetus with sacrococcygeal teratoma. In: Harrison MR, Evans MI, Adzick NS, Holzgreve W (eds) The unborn patient, 3rd edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 315–323Google Scholar
  2. Avni FE, Guibaud L, Robert Y et al (2002) MR imaging of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma: diagnosis and assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol 178:179–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brace V, Grant SR, Brackley KJ, Kilby MD, Whittle MJ (2000) Prenatal diagnosis and outcome in sacrococcygeal teratoma: a review of cases between 1992 and 1998. Prenat Diagn 20:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chisholm CA, Heider AL, Kuller JA, von Allmen D, McMahon MJ, Chestcheir NC (1998) Prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Am J Perinatol 15:503–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Danzer E, Hubbard AM, Hedrick HL, Hohnson MO, Wilson RD, Howell LJ et al (2006) Diagnosis and characterization of fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma with prenatal MRI. AJR Am J Roentgenol 187:350–356Google Scholar
  6. Flake AW (1993) Fetal sacrococcygeal teratoma. Semin Pediatr Surg 2:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hedrick HL, Flake AW, Crombleholme TM, Howell LJ, Johnson MP, Wilson RD et al (2004) Sacrococcygeal teratoma: prenatal assessment, fetal intervention, and outcome. J Pediatr Surg 39:430–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kocaoglu M, Frush DP (2006) Pediatric presacral masses. Radiographics 26:833–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ueno T, Tanaka YO, Nagata M, Tsunoda H, Anno I, Ishikawa S et al (2004) Spectrum of germ cell tumors: from head to toe. Radiographics 24:387–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Westerburg B, Feldstein VA, Sandberg PL, Lopoo JB, Harrison MR, Albanese CT (2000) Sonographic prognostic factors in fetuses with sacrococcygeal teratoma. J Pediatr Surg 35:322–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Woodward PJ, Sohaey R, Kennedy A, Koeller KK (2005) From the archives of the AFIP: a comprehensive review of fetal tumors with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 25:215–242Google Scholar

Case 9: Fetal Ureterocele

  1. Fleisher AC, Romero R, Manning FA et al (1999) The principles and practice of ultrasonography in obstetrics and gynecology. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, pp 266–267Google Scholar
  2. Adiego B, Martinez-Ten P, Perez-Pedregosa J, Illescas T, Barron E, Wong AE et al (2011) Antenatally diagnosed renal duplex anomalies: sonographic features and long-term postnatal outcome. J Ultrasound Med 30:809–815PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Avni FE, Nicaise N, Hall M et al (2001) The role of MR imaging for the assessment of complicated duplex kidneys in children: preliminary report. Pediatr Radiol 31:215–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chertin B, Rabinowitz R, Pollack A, Koulikov D, Fridmans A, Hadas-Halpern I et al (2005) Does prenatal diagnosis influence the morbidity associated with left in situ nonfunctioning or poorly functioning renal moiety after endoscopic puncture of ureterocele? J Urol 173:1349–1352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Jeffrey RB, Laing FC, Wing VW, Hoddick W (1984) Sonography of the fetal duplex kidney. Radiology 153:123–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Merlini E, Lelli Chiesa P (2004) Obstructive ureterocele, an ongoing challenge. World J Urol 22:107–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Pohl HG (2011) Recent advances in the management of ureteroceles in infants and children: why less may be more. Curr Opin Urol 21:322–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Quintero RA, Homsy Y, Bornick PW et al (2001) In-utero treatment of fetal bladder outlet obstruction by a ureterocele. Lancet 357:1947–1948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Sepúlveda W, Campana C, Carstens E, Rodriguez J (2003) Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of bilateral ureteroceles: the pseudoseptated fetal bladder. J Ultrasound Med 22:841–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Soothill PW, Bartha JL, Tizard J (2003) Ultrasound guided laser treatment for fetal bladder outlet obstruction resulting from ureterocele. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:1107–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Sozubir S, Lorenzo AJ, Twickler DM, Baker LA, Ewalt DH (2003) Prenatal diagnosis of a prolapsed ureterocele with magnetic resonance imaging. Urology 62:144PubMedGoogle Scholar

Case 10: Persistent Urachus and Allantoid Cyst

  1. Moore KL (1982) The urogenital system. In: Moore KL (ed) The developing human, 3rd edn. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 255–297Google Scholar
  2. Prenatal diagnosis of a patent urachus cyst with the use of 2D, 3D, 4D ultrasound and fetal MRI. SonoWorld. http://www.sonoworld.com/Client/ModuleContent/ModuleContent.aspx?ModuleId=5&ContentId=1942
  3. Bunch PT, Kline-fath BM, Imhoff SC, Calvo-García MA, Crombleholme TM, Donnelly LF (2006) Allantoic cyst: a prenatal clue to patent urachus. Case report. Pediatr Radiol 36:1090–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cilento BG Jr, Bauer SB, Retik AB, Peters CA, Atala A (1998) Urachal anomalies: defining the best diagnostic modality. Urology 52:120–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Costakos DT, Williams AC, Love LA, Wood BP (1992) Patent urachal duct. Am J Dis Child 146:951–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. DiSantis DJ, Siegel MJ, Katz ME (1991) Simplified approach to umbilical remnant abnormalities. Radiographics 11:59–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Frazier HA, Guerrieri JP, Thomas RL, Christenson PJ (1992) The detection of patent urachus and allantoic cyst of the umbilical cord on prenatal ultrasonography. J Ultrasound Med 11:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mesrobian HGO, Zacharias A, Balcom AH, Cohen RD (1997) Ten years of experience with isolated urachal anomalies in children. J Urol 158:1316–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Nix JT, Menville JG, Albert M, Wendt DL (1957) Congenital patent urachus. J Urol 79:264–273Google Scholar
  10. Persutte WH, Lenke RR (1990) Disappearing fetal umbilical cord masses. Are these findings suggestive of urachal anomalies? J Ultrasound Med 9:547–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Tolaymat LL, Maher GE, Stalnaker R, Kea K, Walker A (1997) Persistent patent urachus with allantoic cyst: a case report. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 10:366–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Yu JS, Kim KW, Lee HJ, Lee YJ, Yoon CS, Kim MJ (2001) Urachal remnant diseases: spectrum of CT and US findings. Radiographics 21:451–461PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • María I. Martínez-León
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiology Pediatric Radiology UnitHospital Materno-Infantil del Hospital Regional Universitario Carlos HayaMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations