Securitization of Climate Change in the United Nations 2007 – 2010

Chapter
Part of the Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace book series (HSHES, volume 8)

Abstract

The debate about climate change and security in the United Nations main organs provides a practical example of the strategic use of discursive strategies such as rhetorical entrapment and forum-switching in the securitization of non-traditional threats. By relying on a revised theory of securitization, this chapter argues that the dominant storylines changed significantly between the Security Council debate in 2007 and the General Assembly negotiations of 2008–2009. The emphasis of the small island developing states on climate change as a threat to livelihoods and human security was apparently much more acceptable than the environmental conflict storyline employed by many European countries in the Security Council.

Keywords

United Nations Security Council General Assembly Human Security International Peace 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Austin, John L., 1975: How to Do Things with Words (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Balzacq, Thierry, 2005: “The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context”, in: European Journal of International Relations 11,2 (June): 171–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balzacq, Thierry, 2010: “Constructivism and securitization studies”, in: Mauer, Victor; Dunn Cavelty, Myriam (Eds.): The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies (London: Routledge): 56–72.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, Jon, 2003: “Security and climate change”, in: Global Environmental Change, 13,1 (April): 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brauch, Hans Günter, 2009: “Securitzing Global Environmental Change”, in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Grin, John; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chourou, Béchir; Krummenacher, Heinz (Eds.), 2009: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 4 (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag): 65–102.Google Scholar
  6. Brzoska, Michael, 2009: “The Securitization of Climate Change and the Power of Conceptions of Security”, in: Sicherheit und Frieden, 27,3: 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buzan, Barry; Wæer, Ole; Wilde, Jaap de; 1998: Security. A New Framework of Analysis (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers).Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, Kurt, M.; Gulledge, Jay; McNeill, J.R.; Podesta, John; Ogden, Peter; Fuerth, Leon; Woolsey, R. James; Lennon, Alexander, T.J.; Smith, Julianne; Weitz, Richard; Mix, Derek, 2007: The Age of Consequences: The Foreign Policy and National Security Implications of Global Climate Change (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies [CSIS] – Center for a New American Security, November).Google Scholar
  9. Deitelhoff, Nicole, 2006: Überzeugung in der Politik: Grundzüge einer Diskurstheorie internationalen Regierens (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp).Google Scholar
  10. Deitelhoff, Nicole, 2009: “The discursive process of legalization: Charting islands of persuasion in the ICC case”, in: International Organization, 63,1: 33–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Detraz, Nicole; Betsill, Michele M., 2009: “Climate Change and Environmental Security: For Whom the Discourse Shifts”, in: International Studies Perspectives, 10,3: 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dröge, Susanne, 2009: “Die internationalen Klimaverhandlungen. Funktion, Substanz und Erfolgsaussichten”, in: Dröge, Susanne (Ed.): Die internationale Klimapolitik. Prioritäten wichtiger Verhandlungsmächte, S30 (Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik): 11–29.Google Scholar
  13. Elster, Jon, 1986: “The Market and the Forum: three varieties of political theory”, in: Elster, Jon; Hylland, Aanund (Eds.): Foundations of social choice theory (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press): 103–132.Google Scholar
  14. Finnemore, Martha; Sikkink, Kathryn, 1998: “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change”, in: International Organization, 52,4: 887–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Floyd, Rita, 2010: Security and the Environment: Securitisation Theory and US Environmental Security Policy (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  16. Fröhlich, Manuel; Hüfner, Klaus; Märker, Alfredo, 2005: Die Reform des UN-Sicherheitsrates. Modelle, Kriterien und Kennziffern (Berlin: Deutsche Gesellschaft für die Vereinten Nationen).Google Scholar
  17. George, Alexander L.; Bennett, Andrew, 2004: Case studies and theory development in the social sciences (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press).Google Scholar
  18. Habermas, Jürgen, 2007: The Theory of Communicative Action (Cambridge: Polity).Google Scholar
  19. Haldén, Peter, 2007: The Geopolitics of Climate Change. Challenges to the International System (Stockholm: FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency).Google Scholar
  20. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., 1994: “Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence From Cases”, in: International Security, 19,1 (Summer): 5–40.Google Scholar
  21. Hurd, Ian, 2008: “Myths of Membership: The Politics of Legitimation in UN Security Council Reform”, in: Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 14,2: 199–217.Google Scholar
  22. Jaggard, Linn, 2008: “Climate Change Politics, the UN and National Interests”, in: Environmental Policy and Law, 38,5: 203–238.Google Scholar
  23. Johnstone, Ian, 2003: “Security Council Deliberations: The Power of the Better Argument”, in: European Journal of International Law, 14,3: 437–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Keller, Reiner, 2007: Diskursforschung. Eine Einführung fur SozialwissenschaftlerInnen (Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften).Google Scholar
  25. Knudsen, Olav F., 2001: “Post-Copenhagen Security Studies: Desecuritizing Securitization”, in: Security Dialogue, 32,3 (September): 355–368.Google Scholar
  26. Krause, Keith; Williams, M. C., 1996: “Broadening the agenda of security studies: politics and methods”, in: Mershon International Studies Review, 40,2: 229–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McDonald, Matt, 2008: “Securitization and the Construction of Security”, in: European Journal of International Relations, 14,4: 563–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Milliken, Jennifer, 1999: “The Study of Discourse in International Relations: A Critique of Research and Methods”, in: European Journal of International Relations, 5,2: 225–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Paterson, Matthew; Grubb, Michael, 1992: “The International Politics of Climate Change”, in: International Affairs, 68,2 (April): 293–310.Google Scholar
  30. Risse, Thomas, 1999: “International Norms and Domestic Change: Arguing and Communicative Behaviour in the Human Rights Area”, in: Politics & Society, 27,4: 529–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Risse, Thomas; Ropp, Stephen C.; Sikkink, Kathryn (Eds.), 1999: The power of human rights: International norms and domestic change (New York: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  32. Schimmelpfennig, Frank, 1997: “Rhetorisches Handeln in der internationalen Politik”, in: Zeitschrift für internationale Beziehungen, 4,2: 219–254.Google Scholar
  33. Schwartz, Peter; Randall, Doug, 2003: An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security (Washington, DC: Environmental Media Services).Google Scholar
  34. Sindico, Francesco, 2007: “Climate Change: A Security (Council) Issue?”, in: CCLR The Carbon & Climate Law Review, 1,1: 29–44.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, Dan; Vivekananda, Janani, 2007: A climate of conflict: the links between climate change, peace and war (London: International Alert).Google Scholar
  36. Stritzel, Holger, 2007: “Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond”, in: European Journal of International Relations, 13,3: 357–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Talmon, Stefan, 2005: “The Security Council as World Legislature”, in: American Journal of International Law, 99,1: 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tarry, Sarah, 1999: “‘Deepening’and ‘Widening’: An Analysis of Security Definitions in the 1990s”, in: Journal of Military and Strategic Studies, 2,1 (Fall); at: <http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/272/286>.
  39. Trombetta, Maria Julia, 2008: “Environmental security and climate change: analysing the discourse”, in: Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21,4: 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), 1994: Human Development Report 1994. New Dimensions of Human Security. Human Development Report (Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  41. UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe), 2006: “The Environment and Security Initiative”. Note by the Secretariat, Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, Fourth meeting, UN Doc. ECE/MP.WAT/2006/18 (Bonn, UN, 17 October).Google Scholar
  42. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 1989: Provisional Verbatim Record of the Fifth Meeting, Fortyfourth Session, UN Doc. A/44/PV.5 (New York: UN, 27 September).Google Scholar
  43. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2008: Security and Climate Change: draft resolution, UN Doc. A/62/L.50 (New York: UN, 10 September).Google Scholar
  44. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2009a: Climate Change and its possible security implications, UN Doc. A/RES/63/281 (New York: UN, 3 June).Google Scholar
  45. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2009b: Official Records, 85th Plenary Meeting, 63rd session. UN Doc. A/63/PV.85 (New York: UN, 3 June).Google Scholar
  46. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2009c: Climate Change and its possible security implications, Report by the Secretary General, UN Doc. A/64/350 (New York: UN, 11 September).Google Scholar
  47. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2009d: Official Records, Third Plenary Meeting, 64th session, UN Doc. A/64/PV.3 (New York, UN, 23 September).Google Scholar
  48. UNGA (United Nations General Assembly), 2009e: Official Records, 47th Plenary Meeting, 64th session. UN Doc. A/64/PV.47 (New York: UN, 16 November).Google Scholar
  49. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2007a: Letter dated 5 April 2007 from the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council. UN Doc. S/2007/186 (New York: UN, 5 April).Google Scholar
  50. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2007b: Letter dated 12 April 2007 from the Chargé d’Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council. UN Doc. S/2007/203 (New York: UN, 13 April).Google Scholar
  51. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2007c: Letter dated 16 April 2007 from the Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security Council. UN Doc. S/2007/211 (New York: UN, 16 April).Google Scholar
  52. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2007d: Provisional Record of the 5663rd meeting (resumed), UN Doc. S/PV.5663 (Resumption 1 ) (New York: UN, 17 April).Google Scholar
  53. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2007e: Provisional Record of the 5663rd meeting. UN Doc. S/PV.5663 (New York: UN, 17 April).Google Scholar
  54. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2009: Provisional Records of the 6196th meeting on women, peace and security (resumption 1). UN Doc. S/PV.6196 (Resumption 1) (New York: UN, 9 October).Google Scholar
  55. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2010a: Provisional Records of the 5663rd meeting on “Cooperation between the United Nations and regional and subregional organizations in maintaining international peace and security”. UN Doc. S/PV.6257 (New York:, UN, 13 January).Google Scholar
  56. UNSC (United Nations Security Council), 2010b: Provisional Records of the 6411th meeting (Resumption 1) on Women, Peace and Security. UN Doc. S/PV.6411 (Resumption 1) (New York: UN, 26 October).Google Scholar
  57. Wæver, Ole, 1995: “Securitization and desecuritization”, in: Lipschutz. Ronnie D. (Ed.): On Security (New York: Columbia University Press): 46–86.Google Scholar
  58. Weber, Max, 1922: Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie (Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausendeins).Google Scholar
  59. Williams, Michael C., 2003: “Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics”, in: International Studies Quarterly, 47,4: 511–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. WBGU (Wissenschaftlicher Beirat Globale Umweltveränderungen), 2007: Welt im Wandel – Sicherheitsrisiko Klimawandel (Berlin – Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag). Google Scholar
  61. WBGU, 2008: World in Transition – Climate Change as a Security Risk (London: Earthscan); at: <http://www.wbgu.de/wbgu_jg2007_engl.html>.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Internationale Organisationen und PolitikfelderUniversität PotsdamPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations