Routine Violence in Java, Indonesia: Neo-Malthusian and Social Justice Perspectives

  • Mohammad Zulfan Tadjoeddin
  • Anis Chowdhury
  • Syed Mansoob Murshed
Chapter
Part of the Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace book series (HSHES, volume 8)

Abstract

This chapter examines the role of population pressure and inequality and their possible joint effects on routine violence across districts in Java. It looks at violence from the perspectives of neo-Malthusian and social justice. These issues are highly relevant for Java. Inhabited by 128 million people, it is the most populous island on earth and the most densely populated island in Indonesia, making it classically Malthusian. Furthermore, the effects of global climate change (e.g. of rising sea level) and environmental degradations are likely to deepen the Malthusian scenario for Java.

Keywords

Gross Domestic Product Income Inequality High Population Density Gini Coefficient Population Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James A., Yared, Pierre, 2008: “Income and Democracy”, in: American Economic Review, 98,3: 808–42.Google Scholar
  2. Acemoglu, Daron; Robinson, James A., 2006: Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  3. Alesina, Alberto; Perotti, Roberto, 1996: “Income Distribution, Political Instability, and Investment”, in: European Economic Review 40,6: 1203–28.Google Scholar
  4. André, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 1998: “Land Relations under Unbearable Stress: Rwanda Caught in the Malthusian Trap”, in: Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation 34:1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barron, Patrick; Varsney, Ashutosh; Palmer, Blair; Jaffrey, Sana, 2009: “Understanding Violent Conflict in Indonesia: A Mix Method Approach”, in: Social Development Papers 117 (Washington, DC: World Bank).Google Scholar
  6. Barron, Patrick; Sharpe, Joanne, 2008: "Local Conflict in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Understanding Variations in Violence Levels and Forms Through Local Newspapers", in: Journal of East Asian Studies, 8,3: 395–424.Google Scholar
  7. Barron, Patrick; Kaiser, Kai; Pradhan, Menno, 2009: "Understanding Variations in Local Conflict: Evidence and Implications from Indonesia", in: World Development, 37,3: 698–713.Google Scholar
  8. Brass, Paul, 2003: The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India (Seattle: University of Washington Press).Google Scholar
  9. Cameron, A. Colin; Trivedi, Pravin K., 1998: Regression Analysis of Count Data (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  10. Chowdhury, Anis; Islam, Iyanatul; Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, 2009: “Indonesia’s Employment Challenges: Growth, Structural Change & Labour Market Rigidity”, in: European Journal of East Asian Studies, 8,1: 31–59.Google Scholar
  11. Collier, Paul; Hoeffler, Anke, 2004: “Greed and Grievance in Civil War”, in: Oxford Economic Papers, 56,4: 563–95.Google Scholar
  12. Cramer, Christopher, 2005: “Inequality and Conflict: A Review of an Age-Old Concern”, in: Identities, Conflict and Cohesion Programme Paper 11 (Geneva: UNRISD).Google Scholar
  13. de Soysa, Indra, 2002: "Ecoviolence: Shrinking Pie or Honey Pot?", in: Global Environmental Politics, 2,4: 1–36.Google Scholar
  14. de Tocqueville, Alexis, 1961: Democracy in America, Volume II (New York, NY: Schocken Books).Google Scholar
  15. Fearon, James D.; Laitin, David D., 2003: “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War”, in: American Political Science Review, 97,1: 75–90.Google Scholar
  16. Gurr, Ted Robert, 1970: Why Men Rebel (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  17. Hauge, Wenche; Ellingsen, Tanja, 1998: “Beyond Environmental Scarcity: Causal Pathways to Conflict”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 35,3: 299–317.Google Scholar
  18. Hibbs, Douglas A., 1973: Mass Political Violence: A Cross-National Causal Analysis (London: Wiley).Google Scholar
  19. Hirschman, Albert O., 1973: “The Changing Tolerance for Income Inequality in the Course of Economic Development”, in: World Development, 1,12: 29–36.Google Scholar
  20. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., 1991: “On the threshold: Environmental changes as causes of acute conflict”, in: International Security, 16: 76–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., 1994: “Environmental scarcities and violent conflict: Evidence from cases”, in: International Security, 19,1: 5–40.Google Scholar
  22. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., 1999: Environment, Scarcity, and Violence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  23. Horowitz, Donald, 1985: Ethnic Groups in Conflict (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  24. Huntington, Samuel P., 1996: The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster).Google Scholar
  25. Huntington, Samuel P. 1968: Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven – London: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  26. Kanbur, Ravi, 2007: “Poverty, Inequality and Conflict”, in: AEM Working Paper 2007 –01: (Cornell University).Google Scholar
  27. Kaplan, Robert D., 1994: “Economic Growth and Income Inequality” in: American Economic Review, 45,1: 1–28.Google Scholar
  28. Mancini, Luca, 2008: “Horizontal Inequality and Communal Violence: Evidence from Indonesian Districts”, in: Stewart, Frances (Ed.): Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies (London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  29. Muller, Edward N., 1997: “Economic Determinants of Democracy”, in: Midlarsky, M. I., Inequality, Democracy and Economic Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  30. Murshed, S. Mansoob, 2010: Explaining Civil War: A Rational Choice Approach (Cheltenham, U.K. – Northampton, M.A.: Edward Elgar).Google Scholar
  31. Murshed, Syed Mansoob; Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, 2009: “Revisiting the Greed and Grievance Explanation for Violent Internal Conflict”, in: Journal of International Development, 21,1: 87–111.Google Scholar
  32. Murshed, Syed Mansoob; Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan; Chowdhury, Anis, 2009: “Is Fiscal Decentralisation Conflict Abating? Routine Violence and District Level Government in Java, Indonesia”, in: Oxford Development Studies, 37,4: 397–421.Google Scholar
  33. Nafziger, E. Wayne; Auvinen, Juha, 2002: “Economic Development, Inequality, War and State Violence”, in: World Development, 30,2: 153–63.Google Scholar
  34. Olson, Mancur, 1965: The Logic of Collective Action (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  35. Østby, Gudrun; Urdal, Henrik; Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan; Murshed, Syed Mansoob; Strand, Havard, 2011; “Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequality and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study of Indonesian Provinces, 1990–2003”, in: Journal of Development Studies, 47,3: 377–98.Google Scholar
  36. Østby, Gudrun, 2008: “Horizontal Inequalities, Political Environment and Civil Conflict: Evidence from 55 Developing Countries”, in: Stewart, Frances (Ed.): Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies (London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  37. Papaioannou, Elias; Siourounis, Gregorios, 2008: “Democratisation and Growth”, in: The Economic Journal, 118,532: 1520–51.Google Scholar
  38. Russett, Bruce M., 1964: “Inequality and Insurgency: The Relation of Land Tenure to Politics”, in: World Politics, 16,3: 442–54.Google Scholar
  39. Stewart, Frances (Ed.), 2008: Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies (London: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  40. Stewart, Frances, 2000: “Crisis Prevention: Tackling Horizontal Inequalities”, in: Oxford Development Studies, 28,3: 245– 262.Google Scholar
  41. Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan, 2009: “Grievance, Greed and Cooperation: Localised Ethnic Strife during Indonesian Transition”, Paper for the 5th Australasian Development Economic Workshop (ADEW), University of Melbourne, 4–5 July.Google Scholar
  42. Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan; Murshed, Syed Mansoob, 2007: “Socio-Economic Determinants of Everyday Violence in Indonesia: An Empirical Investigation of Javanese Districts, 1994–2003”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 44,6: 689–709.Google Scholar
  43. Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan; Suharyo Widjajanti, I. Suharyo; Mishra, Satish, 2001: “Regional Disparity and Vertical Conflicts in Indonesia”, in: Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 6,3: 283–304.Google Scholar
  44. Theisen, Ole Magnus, 2008: “Blood and Soil? Resource Scarcity and Internal Armed Conflict Revisited”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 45,6: 801–818.Google Scholar
  45. UNSFIR/UNDP, 2004: Indonesia Collective Violence Database 19902003 (Jakarta: UNSFIR/UNDP).Google Scholar
  46. Urdal, Henrik, 2005: “People vs. Malthus: Population Pressure, Environmental Degradation, and Armed Conflict Revisited”, in: Journal of Peace Research, 42,4: 417–34.Google Scholar
  47. Urdal, Henrik, 2006: “A Clash of Generations? Youth Bulges and Political Violence”, in: International Studies Quarterly, 50,3: 607–29.Google Scholar
  48. Urdal, Henrik, 2008: “Population, Resources and Political Violence: A Sub-national Study of India 1956–2002”, in: Journal of Conflict Resolution, 52,4: 590–617.Google Scholar
  49. Varshney, Ashutosh; Tadjoeddin, Mohammad Zulfan; Panggabean, Rizal, 2008: “Creating Datasets in Information- Poor Environments: Patterns of Collective Violence in Indonesia (1990–2003)”, in: Journal of East Asian Studies 8,3: 361–94.Google Scholar
  50. Varshney, Ashutosh, 2002: Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India (New Haven, CT – London, UK: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  51. Welsh, Bridget, 2008: “Local and National: ‘Keroyokan’ Mobbing in Indonesia”, in: Journal of East Asian Studies, 8,3: 473–504.Google Scholar
  52. Wilkinson, Steven, 2004: Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Zulfan Tadjoeddin
    • 1
  • Anis Chowdhury
    • 2
  • Syed Mansoob Murshed
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Social SciencesUniversity of Western SydneyPenrithAustralia
  2. 2.School of Economics & FinanceUniversity of Western SydneyPenrith South DCAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Social Studies (ISS)The HagueThe Netherlands
  4. 4.The Birmingham Business SchoolUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations