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The BIZ Top-Level Domain: Ten Years Later

  • Tristan Halvorson
  • Janos Szurdi
  • Gregor Maier
  • Mark Felegyhazi
  • Christian Kreibich
  • Nicholas Weaver
  • Kirill Levchenko
  • Vern Paxson
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7192)

Abstract

On May 15, 2001 ICANN announced the introduction of the biz and info generic top-level domains (gTLDs)—the first new gTLDs since the inception of the Domain Name System—aiming to “increase consumer choice and create opportunities for entities that have been shut out under the current name structure.” The biz gTLD, in particular, was to become an alternative to the popular com top-level domain.

In this paper we examine the current usage of the biz gTLD in order to determine whether it has evolved into the role intended by ICANN, and whether concerns expressed in the early discussions of this expansion have been justified. In particular, using DNS zone files, DNS probing, and Web crawler data, we attempt to answer the question of whether biz has become a viable alternative to com, giving trademark holders who find themselves unable to register a com name an attractive alternative; or whether it has merely induced defensive registrations by existing trademark holders who already had equivalent com domains.

Keywords

Domain Name System Levenshtein Distance Category Match Strong Match Open Directory Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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References

  1. 1.
    Alexa: Alexa top 500 global sites (June 2011), http://www.alexa.com/topsites
  2. 2.
    Carlton, D.: Report of Dennis Carlton regarding ICANN’s proposed mechanism for introducing new gTLDs (June 2009), http://www.icann.org/en/topics/new-gtlds/carlton-re-proposed-mechanism-05jun09-en.pdf
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    Domain Name Supporting Organization: Working Group C – creation of new gTLD (June 1999), http://www.dnso.org/dnso/notes/19990625.NCwgc.html
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    Fielding, R.T., Gettys, J., Mogul, J.C., Nielsen, H.F., Masinter, L., Leach, P.J., Berners-Lee, T.: Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1. RFC 2616, The Internet Society (June 1999)Google Scholar
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    Internet Assigned Numbers Authority: Iana report on establishment of the .biz and .info top-level domains (June 2001), http://www.iana.org/reports/2001/biz-info-report-25jun01.html
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    Katz, M.L., Rosston, G.L., Sullivan, T.: An economic framework for the analysis of the expansion of generic top-level domain names (June 2010), http://www.icann.org/en/topics/new-gtlds/economic-analysis-of-new-gtlds-16jun10-en.pdf
  8. 8.
    National Telecommunications and Information Administration: Statement of policy on the management of internet names and addresses (June 1998), http://www.ntia.doc.gov/federal-register-notice/1998/statement-policy-management-internet-names-and-addresses
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    ODP – Open Directory Project (September 2011), http://www.dmoz.org
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    Weinberg, J.: Report (part one) of Working Group C of the Domain Name Supporting Organization Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, http://www.dnso.org/dnso/notes/20000321.NCwgc-report.html
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    Zittrain, J., Edelman, B.: Survey of usage of the .BIZ TLD (June 2002), http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/tlds/001/

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tristan Halvorson
    • 1
  • Janos Szurdi
    • 2
  • Gregor Maier
    • 3
  • Mark Felegyhazi
    • 2
  • Christian Kreibich
    • 3
  • Nicholas Weaver
    • 3
  • Kirill Levchenko
    • 1
  • Vern Paxson
    • 3
  1. 1.UC San DiegonUSA
  2. 2.CrySyS Lab.Budapest University of Technology and EconomicsHungary
  3. 3.International Computer Science InstituteUSA

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