Geolocating IP Addresses in Cellular Data Networks
- 1.5k Downloads
Smartphones connected to cellular networks are increasingly being used to access Internet-based services. Using data collected from smartphones running a popular location-based application, we examine IP address allocation in cellular data networks, with emphasis on understanding the applicability of IP-based geolocation techniques. Our dataset has GPS-based location data for approximately 29,000 cellular network assigned IP addresses in 50 different countries. Using this dataset, we provide insights into the global deployment of cellular networks. For instance, we find that Network Address Translation (NAT) is commonplace in cellular networks. We also find several instances of service differentiation with operators assigning public IP addresses to some devices and private IP addresses to other devices. We also evaluate the error of geolocation databases when determining the position of the smartphones, and find that the error is 100km or more for approximately 70% of our measurements. Further, there is potential for errors at the scale of inter-country and inter-continent distances. We believe this dataset may be of value to the research community, and provide a subset of the dataset to the community.
KeywordsCellular Network Mobile Host Mobile Operator Network Address Translation Horizontal Accuracy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.IPInfoDB, http://ipinfodb.com
- 2.Geolocation and Online Fraud Prevention from MaxMind (2011), http://www.maxmind.com/ (accessed September 14, 2011)
- 3.Geolocation API specification (2011), http://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/ (accessed September 14, 2011)
- 4.Balakrishnan, M., Mohomed, I., Ramasubramanian, V.: Where’s that Phone?: Geolocating IP Addresses on 3G Networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference, Chicago, IL, pp. 294–300 (November 2009)Google Scholar
- 5.Eriksson, B., Barford, P., Sommers, J., Nowak, R.: A Learning-based Approach for IP Geolocation. In: Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 171–180 (April 2010)Google Scholar
- 6.Katz-Bassett, E., John, J.P., Krishnamurthy, A., Wetherall, D., Anderson, T., Chawathe, Y.: Towards IP Geolocation using Delay and Topology Measurements. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 71–84 (October 2006)Google Scholar
- 8.Padmanabhan, V., Subramanian, L.: An Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, San Diego, CA, pp. 173–185 (August 2001)Google Scholar
- 11.Wang, Z., Qian, Z., Xu, Q., Mao, Z., Zhang, M.: An Untold Story of Middleboxes in Cellular Networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, Toronto, ON, pp. 374–385 (August 2011)Google Scholar
- 12.Xu, Q., Huang, J., Wang, Z., Qian, F., Gerber, A., Mao, Z.M.: Cellular Data Network Infrastructure Characterization and Implication on Mobile Content Placement. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGMETRICS, San Jose, CA, pp. 317–328 (June 2011)Google Scholar
- 13.Zandbergen, P.A.: Accuracy of iPhone Locations: A Comparison of Assisted GPS, WiFi and Cellular Positioning. Transactions in GIS 13(S1), 5–25 (2009)Google Scholar