Current Research Data

  • Andreas Otte
Chapter

Abstract

In patients with a late whiplash syndrome, a statistically significant metabolic reduction in the posterior parietal occipital region of the brain is found. This could be shown in several studies with altogether over 500 investigated patients both by cerebral blood flow single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In individual cases, the patients showed also regions with decreased metabolism which were not in the posterior parietal occipital localization, but in these, no statistically significant group differences to a healthy control group could be determined. Posterior parietal occipital findings can also be observed in other diseases with brain affection, e.g., in systemic lupus erythematosus, in Alzheimer’s disease, or in migraine. Such other diseases can easily be excluded by a purposeful clinical and neurological assessment. There are also diseases, which show a similar clinical component as the late whiplash syndrome, e.g., primary depression. In these diseases, the posterior parietal occipital region is, however, not affected.

Keywords

Positron Emission Tomography Traumatic Brain Injury Migraine With Aura Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Whiplash Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander MP (1998) In the pursuit of proof of brain damage after whiplash injury. Neurology 51:336–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audenaert K, Jansen HML, Otte A, Vervaet M, Crombez R, De Ridder L, Van Heeringen K, Dierckx RA, Korf J (2003) Imaging of mild traumatic brain injury using 57Co and 99mTc HMPAO SPECT compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. Med Sci Monit 9:MT112–MT117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bicik I, Radanov BP, Schäfer N, Dvorak J, Blum B, Weber B, Burger C, von Schulthess GK, Buck A (1998) PET with 18fluorodeoxyglucose and hexamethylpropylene amine SPECT in late whiplash syndrome. Neurology 51:345–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Buck A (1999) PET with 18fluorodexyglucose and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPECT in late whiplash syndrome. Neurology 52:1108Google Scholar
  5. Costa DC, Greco A (2004) Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. In: Otte A, Audenaert K, Peremans K, Van Heering C, Dierckx RA (eds) Nuclear medicine in psychiatry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Hong Kong, London, Milan, Paris, Tokyo, pp 289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Costa DC, Tannock C, Brostoff J (1995) Brainstem perfusion is impaired in chronic fatigue syndrome. QJM 88:767–773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Courville CB (1937) Pathology of the central nervous system. Mountain View, California PacificGoogle Scholar
  8. Freitag P, Greenlee MW, Wachter K, Ettlin TM, Radue EW (2001) fMRI response during visual motion stimulation in patients with late whiplash syndrome. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 15:31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Friberg L (1991) Cerebral blood flow changes in migraine. Methods, observations and hypotheses. J Neurol 238(Suppl 1):12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goethals I, Audenaert K, Jacobs F, Lannoo E, Van de Wiele C, Ham H, Otte A, Oostra K, Dierckx R (2004) Cognitive neuroactivation using SPECT and the Stroop colored word test in patients with diffuse brain injury. J Neurotrauma 21:1059–1069PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldenberg G, Oder W, Spatt J, Podreka I (1992) Cerebral correlates of disturbed executive function and memory in survivors of severe closed head injury: a SPECT study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55:362–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Graf M, Grill C, Wedig HD (eds) (2009) Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsäule. Springer Steinkopff, DarmstadtGoogle Scholar
  13. Graham DG, Brierly JB (1984) Vascular disorders of the central nervous system. In: Adams J (ed) Neuropathology. Edward Arnold, London, pp 125–207Google Scholar
  14. Harwood DG, Barker WW, Loewenstein DA et al (1999) Cross-ethnic analysis of risk factors for AD in white Hispanics and white non-Hispanics. Neurology 52:551–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ichise M, Chung DG, Wang P, Wortzman G, Gray BG, Franks W (1994) Technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT, CT and MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic traumatic brain injury: a correlation with neuropsychological performance. J Nucl Med 35:217–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacobs A, Put E, Ingels M, Bossuyt A (1994) Prospective evaluation of technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT in mild and moderate traumatic brain injury. J Nucl Med 35:942–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Johansson G, Risberg J, Rosenhall U, Orndahl G, Svennerholm L, Nystrom S (1995) Cerebral dysfunction in fibromyalgia: evidence from regional cerebral blood flow measurements, otoneurological tests and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 91:86–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lass P, Lyczak P (2004) Functional neuroimaging in late whiplash syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Hell J Nucl Med 7:58–59Google Scholar
  19. Linnman C, Appel L, Söderlund A, Frans O, Engler H, Furmark T, Gordh T, Langström B, Frederikson M (2009) Chronic whiplash symptoms are related to altered regional cerebral blood flow in the resting state. Eur J Pain 13:65–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Linnman C, Appel L, Furmark T, Soderlund A, Gordh T, Langstrom B, Fredrikson M (2010) Ventromedial prefrontal neurokinin 1 receptor availability is reduced in chronic pain. Pain 149:64–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Linnman C, Appel L, Fredrikson M, Gordh T, Soderlund A, Langstrom B, Engler H (2011) Elevated [11 C]-D-deprenyl uptake in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder suggests persistent musculoskeletal inflammation. PLoS One 6:e19182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.001982 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linnman CN, Appel L, Furmark T, Söderlund A, Gordh T, Langström B, Fredrikson M (2012) Response to Dr. Otte: functional neuroimaging in whiplash injury. Eur J Pain 16(1):162–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liotti M, Mayberg HS (2001) The role of functional neuroimaging in the neuropsychology of depression. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 23:121–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lorberboym M, Gilad R, Gorin V, Sadeh M, Lampl Y (2002) Late whiplash syndrome: correlation of brain SPECT with neuropsychological tests and P300 event-related potential. J Trauma 52:521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mehta KM, Ott A, Kalmijn S et al (1999) Head trauma and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: the Rotterdam study. Neurology 52:1559–1562Google Scholar
  26. Mesulam MM (1985) Principles of behavioural neurology. F.A. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  27. Miller BL, Mena I, Daly J, Gombetti RJ, Goldberg MA, Lesser I, Garetti K, Villanueva-Meyer J, Liu CK (1990) Temporo-parietal hypoperfusion with single photon emission computerized tomography in conditions other than Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia 1:41–45Google Scholar
  28. Moskowitz MA, Buzzi MG (1991) Neuroeffector functions of sensory fibers. Implications for headache mechanisms and drug actions. J Neurol 238(Suppl 1):18–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ommaya AK, Faas F, Yarnell R (1968) Whiplash injury and brain damage: an experimental study. JAMA 204:75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Otte A (1998) Does whiplash trauma increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease? J Vasc Invest 4:211–212Google Scholar
  31. Otte A (1999) PET with 18fluorodexyglucose and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime SPECT in late whiplash syndrome. Neurology 52:1107–1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Otte A (2000a) Kognitive Störungen nach traumatischer Distorsion der Halswirbelsäule: Schleudertrauma, quo vadis? Dtsch Ärztebl 97:A463Google Scholar
  33. Otte A (2000b) Self-injection tubing system for brain SPET in epilepsy. Eur J Nucl Med 27:463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Otte A (2000c) The importance of the control group in functional brain imaging. Eur J Nucl Med 27:1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Otte A (2000d) The parieto-occipital region – confusions at the boundary? Eur J Nucl Med 27:238–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Otte A (2001a) The “railway spine” – a precursor for the “whiplash syndrome”? Med Sci Monit 7:1064–1065PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Otte A (2001b) Eisenbahnkrankheit. Dtsch Ärztebl 98(34–35):A2173–A2174Google Scholar
  38. Otte A (2001c) Das Halswirbelsäulen-Schleudertrauma: Neue Wege der funktionellen Bildgebung des Gehirns – Ein Ratgeber für Ärzte und Betroffene. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  39. Otte A (2004) Functional neuroimaging in late whiplash syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Hell J Nucl Med 7:59Google Scholar
  40. Otte A (2012) Functional neuroimaging in whiplash injury. Eur J Pain 16(1):162–163. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.08.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Otte A, Brändli M (1998) Olfactory distress following mild traumatic head injury: a SPECT follow-up. J Vasc Invest 4:207–209Google Scholar
  42. Otte A, Ettlin TM, Mueller-Brand J (1995a) Comparison of Tc-99m-ECD with Tc-99m-HMPAO-brain-SPECT in late whiplash syndrome. J Vasc Invest 1:157–163Google Scholar
  43. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Fierz L (1995b) Brain SPECT findings in late whiplash syndrome. Lancet 345:1513–1514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Otte A, Ettlin Th, Fierz L, Mueller-Brand J (1996a) Parieto-occipital hypoperfusion in late whiplash syndrome: first quantitative SPET study using Tc-99m-bicisate (ECD). Eur J Nucl Med 23:72–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Otte A, Ettlin TM, Fierz L, Kischka U, Muerner J, Högerle S, Bräutigam P, Mueller-Brand J (1996b) Zerebrale Befunde nach Halswirbelsäulendistorsion durch Beschleunigungsmechanismus (HWS-Schleudertrauma): Standortbestimmung zu neuen diagnostischen Methoden der Nuklearmedizin. [Cerebral findings after distorsion of the cervical spine induced by acceleration injury (whiplash injury): Assessment of current isotopic scanning techniques for diagnosis.]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 85:1087–1090Google Scholar
  46. Otte A, Ettlin TM, Fierz L, Kischka U, Muerner J, Mueller-Brand J (1997a) Brain perfusion patterns in 136 patients with chronic symptoms after distorsion of the cervical spine using single-photon emission computed tomography, technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD: a controlled study. J Vasc Invest 3:1–5Google Scholar
  47. Otte A, Ettlin TM, Nitzsche EU, Wachter K, Hoegerle S, Simon GH, Fierz L, Moser E, Mueller-Brand J (1997b) PET and SPECT in whiplash syndrome: a new approach to a forgotten brain? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 63:368–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Otte A, Ettlin TM, Otto I, Mueller-Brand J (1997c) Manipulation-triggered visual disturbances after cervical spine injury. J Vasc Invest 3:197–198Google Scholar
  49. Otte A, Mueller-Brand J, Ettlin TM, Wachter K, Nitzsche EU (1997d) Functional imaging in 200 patients after whiplash injury. J Nucl Med 38:1002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Otte A, Weiner SM, Peter HH, Mueller-Brand J, Goetze M, Moser E, Gutfleisch J, Hoegerle S, Juengling FD, Nitzsche EU (1997e) Brain glucose utilization in systemic lupus erythematosus with beginning neuropsychiatric symptoms: a controlled PET study. Eur J Nucl Med 24:787–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Otte A, Goetze M, Mueller-Brand J (1998a) Statistical parametric mapping in whiplash brain: is it only a contusion mechanism? Eur J Nucl Med 25:306–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Otte A, Juengling FD, Nitzsche EU (1998b) Rethinking mild head injury. J Vasc Invest 4:45–46Google Scholar
  53. Otte A, Stratz T, Wachter K, Nitzsche EU, Zajic T, Goetze M, Ettlin TM, Mueller-Brand J (1998c) Brain SPET Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) in fibromyalgia syndrome: Is brainstem perfusion impaired? J Vasc Invest 4:111–116Google Scholar
  54. Otte A, Weiner SM, Hoegerle S, Wolf R, Juengling FD, Peter HH, Nitzsche EU (1998d) Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus before and after immunosuppressive treatment: a FDG PET study. Lupus 7:57–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Poeck K (1999) Kognitive Störungen nach traumatischer Distorsion der Halswirbelsäule? Dtsch Ärztebl 96:A2596–A2601Google Scholar
  56. Radanov BP, Bicik I, Dvorak J, Antinnes J, von Schulthess GK, Buck A (1999) Relation between neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings in patients with late whiplash syndrome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 66:485–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sundström T, Guez M, Hildingsson C, Toolanen G, Nyberg L, Riklund K (2006) Altered cerebral blood flow in chronic neck pain patients but not in whiplash patients: a 99mTc-HMPAO rVBF study. Eur Spine J 15:1189–1195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tashiro M, Juengling F, Reinhardt M, Moser E, Nitzsche E (2000) Psychological response and survival in breast cancer. Lancet 355:405–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Thompson RS, Rivara FP, Thompson DC (1989) A case–control study of the effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets. N Engl J Med 320:1361–1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Waldemar G, Bruhn P, Kristensen M, Johnsen A, Paulson O, Lassen NA (1994) Heterogeneity of neocortical cerebral blood flow deficits in dementia of the Alzheimer Type: a 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 57:285–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Weiner SM, Otte A (2004) Neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. In: Otte A, Audenaert K, Peremans K, Van Heering C, Dierckx RA (eds) Nuclear medicine in psychiatry. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Hong Kong, London, Milan, Paris, Tokyo, pp 233–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weiner SM, Otte A, Schumacher M, Klein R, Gutfleisch J, Otto P, Brink I, Nitzsche EU, Moser E, Peter HH (2000) Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Ann Rheum Dis 59:377–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Otte
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Institut für Angewandte Forschung (IAF)University of Applied Sciences OffenburgOffenburgGermany

Personalised recommendations